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Little is known about the relative role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) and guanine exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (Epac) as mediators of cAMP action. We tested cAMP analogs for ability to selectively activate Epac1 or cAPK and discriminate between the binding sites of Epac and of cAPKI and cAPKII. We found that commonly used cAMP(More)
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA I and II) and the cAMP-stimulated GDP exchange factors (Epac1 and -2) are major cAMP effectors. The cAMP affinity of the PKA holoenzyme has not been determined previously. We found that cAMP bound to PKA I with a K(d) value (2.9 microM) similar to that of Epac1. In contrast, the free regulatory subunit of PKA type I(More)
Computing workloads often contain a mix of interactive, latency-sensitive foreground applications and recurring background computations. To guarantee responsiveness, interactive and batch applications are often run on disjoint sets of resources, but this incurs additional energy, power, and capital costs. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of hardware(More)
The three aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan hydroxylase) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) all utilize (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) as cofactor. The pterin binding site in the three hydroxylases is well conserved and different from the binding site in NOS. The structures of phenylalanine(More)
The activation of protein kinase A involves the synergistic binding of cAMP to two cAMP binding sites on the inhibitory R subunit, causing release of the C subunit, which subsequently can carry out catalysis. We used NMR to structurally characterize in solution the RIalpha-(98-381) subunit, a construct comprising both cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB)(More)
The first portion of the BABAR experiment Level 1 Drift Chamber Trigger pipeline is the Track Segment Finder (TSF). Using a novel method incorporating both occupancy and drift-time information, the TSF system continually searches for segments in the supercells of the full 7104-wire Drift Chamber hit image at 3.7 MHz. The TSF was constructed to operate in a(More)
Ribosome profiling provides a detailed view into the complex dynamics of translation. Although the precise relation between the observed ribosome footprint densities and the actual translation elongation rates remains elusive, the data clearly suggest that elongation speed is quite heterogeneous along the transcript. Previous studies have shown that(More)
BACKGROUND The regulatory subunit (R) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a modular flexible protein that responds with large conformational changes to the binding of the effector cAMP. Considering its highly dynamic nature, the protein is rather stable. We studied the thermal denaturation of full-length RIα and a truncated RIα(92-381) that contains(More)
The BABAR detector at PEP-II will operate in a high-luminosity e + e ? collider environment near the (4S) resonance with the primary goal of studying CP violation in the B meson system. In this environment, typical physics events of interest involve multiple charged particles. These events are identified by counting these tracks in a fast first level (Level(More)
The environment of the high-luminosity PEP-II machine poses unique design challenges for the trigger system of the BABAR detector. These led to the adoption of a real-time parallel pipelined architecture for the trigger electronics which departs significantly from previous implementations at conventional · experiments. One challenge for the trigger designer(More)