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We are reporting on conditions (without forced drinking or premedications) where rats voluntarily drink high quantities of sucrose-morphine solutions in preference to water. The volume ingested is inversely related to the morphine concentration in the liquid. The morphine antagonist, nalorphine, produced a clear set of opiate withdrawal signs in these(More)
Rats were given ad libitum morphine water, saline morphine, or sucrose morphine as their only source of liquid. Measures of liquid, food, caloric, and morphine intake along with body weight were taken daily, thereby monitoring the effects of morphine ingestion on these indices, and observing the course of dependence over time. To assess the degree of(More)
In the first experiment dose-dependent withdrawal signs following a nalorphine injection (either 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg/kg, i.p.) were seen in rats that had been drinking sucrose morphine for 21 days. A non-dependent control group was generally unaffected by an injection of the antagonist (16 mg/kg, i.p.). In Experiment II, morphine withdrawal signs, both(More)
The convergence hypothesis predicts that women's drinking levels are increasing and are approaching those observed in men. To test this hypothesis, drinking practices of women and men were assessed at a large urban university at two points in time, 1977 (n = 1711) and 1985 (n = 1045). Although women's ethanol intake remained the same, significant changes in(More)
A drug use index (DUI) is constructed from actual usage data of 1,121 respondents (517 males and 604 females). It is proposed that this index represents a quantitative measure of the degree of involvement in polydrug use. Correlations between the DUI and use of 19 drugs or drug classes are reported. Furthermore, some applications of the DUI are demonstrated(More)