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beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) stimulation activates the classic cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway to regulate vital cellular processes from the change of gene expression to the control of metabolism, muscle contraction, and cell apoptosis. Here we show that sustained beta(1)AR stimulation promotes cardiac myocyte apoptosis by activation of(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is widely applied in patients with heart failure and dyssynchronous contraction (DHF), but the electrophysiological consequences of CRT in heart failure remain largely unexplored. METHODS AND RESULTS Adult dogs underwent left bundle-branch ablation and either right atrial pacing (190 to 200 bpm) for 6(More)
Cardiac resynchronization therapy reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure (New York Heart Association class III or IV) and ventricular conduction delay. The current review focuses on how high-throughput technologies including gene expression profiling and proteomics have helped in our understanding of the(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) has been implicated in beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR)/G(i)-mediated compartmentation of the concurrent G(s)-cAMP signaling, negating beta2-AR-induced phospholamban phosphorylation and the positive inotropic and lusitropic responses in cardiomyocytes. However, it is unclear whether PI3K crosstalks with the beta1-AR(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial contractile response to beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) stimulation is severely impaired in chronic heart failure, in which G(i) signaling and the ratio of beta2/beta1 are often increased. Because beta2-AR but not beta1-AR couples to G(s) and G(i) with the G(i) coupling negating the G(s)-mediated contractile response, we(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac electromechanical dyssynchrony causes regional disparities in workload, oxygen consumption, and myocardial perfusion within the left ventricle. We hypothesized that such dyssynchrony also induces region-specific alterations in the myocardial transcriptome that are corrected by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND Slowed Na⁺ current (INa) decay and enhanced late INa (INa-L) prolong the action potential duration (APD) and contribute to early afterdepolarizations. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) shortens APD compared with dyssynchronous heart failure (DHF); however, the role of altered Na⁺ channel gating in CRT remains unexplored. METHODS AND(More)
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), in which both ventricles are paced to recoordinate contraction in hearts that are dyssynchronous from conduction delay, is the only heart failure (HF) therapy to date to clinically improve acute and chronic function while also lowering mortality. CRT acutely enhances chamber mechanical efficiency but chronically(More)
BACKGROUND Sustained pressure overload induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Oxidative stress linked to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling may play an important role. We tested whether tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) can recouple NOS and reverse preestablished advanced hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS C57/Bl6(More)