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While significant recent progress has been made in development of mobile robots for planetary surface exploration, there remain major challenges. These include increased autonomy of operation, traverse of challenging terrain, and fault-tolerance under long, unattended periods of use. We have begun work which addresses some of these issues, with an initial(More)
This paper presents four new technology developments and their infusion into the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. These technologies were not ready for infusion prior to the launch of this mission. Three of these new capabilities are designed to increase the level of autonomy for the operations, i.e., fewer ground-in-the-loop steps for executing(More)
PURPOSE The possible role of gap junctions in the manifestation and control of the duration of seizures was tested on the 4-aminopyridine-induced epilepsy model in rats in vivo, by using electrophysiologic, pharmacologic, and molecular biologic techniques. METHODS; In electrophysiologic experiments, the functional states of the gap junctions were(More)
NASA/JPL's Mars Exploration Rovers acquire their attitude upon command and autonomously propagate their attitude and position. The rovers use accelerometers and images of the sun to acquire attitude, autonomously searching the sky for the sun with an articulated camera. To propagate the attitude and position the rovers use either accelerometer and gyro(More)
The Mars Polar Lander (MPL) mission is the first planetary mission to w e Internet-based distributed ground operations where scientista and engineers cod labornte in daily mission operations f+om multiple geographically distributed locations via the Internet. This paper describes the operations system, the Web Interface for Telescience (WITS), which is used(More)
This paper presents the development, validation, and deployment of the visual target tracking capability onto the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. Visual target tracking enables targeted driving, in which the rover approaches a designated target in a closed visual feedback loop, increasing the target position accuracy by an order of magnitude and(More)
Visual Target Tracking (VTT) has been implemented in the new Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Flight Software (FSW) R9.2 release, which is now running on both Spirit and Opportunity rovers. Applying the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) algorithm with template image magnification and roll compensation on MER Navcam images, VTT tracks the target and enables the(More)
All clocks drift by some amount, and the mission clock on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is no exception. The mission clock on both MER rovers drifted significantly since the rovers were launched, and it is still drifting on the Opportunity rover. The drift rate is temperature dependent. Clock drift causes problems for onboard behaviors and spacecraft(More)
The expression pattern of two metallothionein (MT) genes in response to temperature shock and exposure to Cd(2+) was investigated in the brain of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ), in whole-animal experiments. The changes in the levels of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA in the olfactory lobe, midbrain and cerebellum were followed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The(More)