Khader Ghneim

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UNLABELLED Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We(More)
Despite the overwhelming benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in curtailing viral load in HIV-infected individuals, ART does not fully restore cellular and humoral immunity. HIV-infected individuals under ART show reduced responses to vaccination and infections and are unable to mount an effective antiviral immune response upon ART cessation. Many(More)
The earliest events following mucosal HIV-1 infection, prior to measurable viremia, remain poorly understood. Here, by detailed necropsy studies, we show that the virus can rapidly disseminate following mucosal SIV infection of rhesus monkeys and trigger components of the inflammasome, both at the site of inoculation and at early sites of distal virus(More)
Aging leads to dysregulation of multiple components of the immune system that results in increased susceptibility to infections and poor response to vaccines in the aging population. The dysfunctions of adaptive B and T cells are well documented, but the effect of aging on innate immunity remains incompletely understood. Using a heterogeneous population of(More)
The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5' triphosphate (5'ppp) terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at(More)
HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can protect rhesus monkeys against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, the site of antibody interception of virus and the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection remain unclear. We administered a fully protective dose of the bNAb PGT121 to rhesus monkeys and challenged them(More)
Based on the partial efficacy of the HIV/AIDS Thai trial (RV144) with a canarypox vector prime and protein boost, attenuated poxvirus recombinants expressing HIV-1 antigens are increasingly sought as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Here we describe using systems analysis the biological and immunological characteristics of the attenuated vaccinia virus(More)
To combat the diverse pathogens that infect humans, the immune system has evolved complex and diverse transcriptional signatures, which drive differential cellular and humoral responses. These signatures are induced by immune receptor sensing of pathogens and by cytokines produced at the earliest onset of infection. The specific nature of immune activation(More)
Age-related alterations in immunity have been linked to increased incidence of infections and decreased responses to vaccines in the aging population. Human peripheral blood monocytes are known to promote Ag presentation and antiviral activities; however, the impact of aging on monocyte functions remains an open question. We present an in-depth global(More)