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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can be a highly effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, therapeutic efficacy is limited by difficulties in consistently and correctly targeting this nucleus. Increasing evidence suggests that there is abnormal synchronization of beta frequency band activity (approximately 20(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) could potentially be used to interact with pathological brain signals to intervene and ameliorate their effects in disease states. Here, we provide proof-of-principle of this approach by using a BCI to interpret pathological brain activity in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) and to use this feedback to(More)
Monitoring and evaluating movement errors to guide subsequent movements is a critical feature of normal motor control. Previously, we showed that the postmovement increase in electroencephalographic (EEG) beta power over the sensorimotor cortex reflects neural processes that evaluate motor errors consistent with Bayesian inference (Tan et al., 2014).(More)
This study explores whether near-infrared (NIr) light treatment neuroprotects dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the zona incerta-hypothalamus (ZI-Hyp) from degeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. BALB/c albino mice were divided into four groups: 1) Saline, 2) Saline-NIr, 3) MPTP, 4)(More)
Depth recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have demonstrated exaggerated local field potential (LFP) activity at frequencies between 10 and 30 Hz in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This activity is modulated prior to single phasic movements, possibly as part of the feedforward organization of incipient voluntary movement, and after single(More)
The neural substrates that enable individuals to achieve their fastest and strongest motor responses have long been enigmatic. Importantly, characterization of such activities may inform novel therapeutic strategies for patients with hypokinetic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Here, we ask whether the basal ganglia may play an important role, not(More)
We have examined dopaminergic cell survival after alteration of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys. The STN was lesioned with kainic acid (B series) or underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) at high frequency (C series). In another series, MPTP-treated and non-MPTP-treated monkeys had no STN(More)
We have shown previously that photobiomodulation or near-infrared light (NIr) treatment protects dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in an acute MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we tested the protective and rescue action of NIr treatment in a chronic MPTP model,(More)
The basal ganglia may play an important role in the control of motor scaling or effort. Recently local field potential (LFP) recordings from patients with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia have suggested that local increases in the synchronisation of neurons in the gamma frequency band may correlate with force or effort. Whether this(More)