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The latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resting primary CD4+ T cells is the major barrier for the eradication of the virus in patients on suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Even with optimal HAART treatment, replication-competent HIV-1 still exists in resting primary CD4+ T cells. Multiple restriction factors(More)
Cellular cytidine deaminases APOBEC3 family is a group of potent inhibitors for many exogenous and endogenous retroviruses. It has been demonstrated that they induce G to A hypermutations in the nascent retroviral DNA, resulting from the cytosine (C) to uracil (U) conversions in minus-stranded viral DNA. In this report, we have demonstrated that the result(More)
The interferon (IFN) system, including various IFNs and IFN-inducible gene products, is well known for its potent innate immunity against wide-range viruses. Recently, a family of cytidine deaminases, functioning as another innate immunity against retroviral infection, has been identified. However, its regulation remains largely unknown. In this report, we(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Remnant lipoproteins that persist in the bloodstream after each meal have become increasingly important contributors to atherosclerotic vascular disease, owing to the spread of overnutrition, underexertion, obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we review recent work that clarified long-standing controversies over the(More)
In the human genome, the APOBEC3 gene has expanded into a tandem array of genes termed APOBEC3A-H. Several members of this family have potent anti-HIV-1 activity. Here we demonstrate that APOBEC-3B/3C/3F and -3G are expressed in all major cellular components of the CNS. Moreover, we show that both interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma significantly(More)
Endocytosis via rafts has attracted considerable recent interest, but the molecular mediators remain incompletely characterized. Here, we focused on the syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor that we previously showed to undergo raft-dependent endocytosis upon clustering. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of three(More)
Lysyl oxidase (LO) catalyzes crosslinking of collagen and elastin essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM). To understand mechanisms of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, we investigated effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate matter of CS, on LO mRNA expression in cultured rat fetal(More)
Background:Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has long-lasting influence on offspring, which is associated with increased risks of insulin resistance, obesity, and type II diabetes mellitus. Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most common and available nutritional interventions to prevent obesity and diabetes. We are trying to explore the effect of CR(More)
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was used in large quantities, and mainly for killing the intermediate host snails of schistosome in China, thereby resulting in ubiquitous PCP residue in the environment. However, studies considering the carcinogenicity of PCP for humans mainly focused on occupational workers, and the actual carcinogenicity of PCP for general(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related syndromes exhibit a deadly triad of dyslipoproteinemia, which leads to atherosclerosis, hyperglycemia, which causes microvascular disease, and hypertension. These features share a common, but unexplained, origin--namely, pathway-selective insulin resistance and responsiveness (SEIRR). Here, we(More)