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A DNA microarray system is usually comprised of DNA probes formatted on a microscale on a glass surface (chip), plus the instruments needed to handle samples (automated robotics), to read the reporter molecules (scanners) and analyse the data (bioinformatic tools). Biochips are formed by in situ (on chip) synthesis of oligonucleotides or peptide nucleic(More)
  • K K Jain
  • 2003
Nanotechnology extends the limits of molecular diagnostics to the nanoscale. Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of microfluidic/lab-on-a-chip technology. Biological tests measuring the presence or activity of selected substances become quicker, more sensitive and more flexible when certain nanoscale particles are put to work as tags or labels.(More)
  • K K Jain
  • 2008
Nanomedicine is the application of nanobiotechnologies to medicine. This article starts with the basics of nanobiotechnology, followed by its applications in molecular diagnostics, nanodiagnostics, and improvements in the discovery, design and delivery of drugs, including nanopharmaceuticals. It will improve biological therapies such as vaccination, cell(More)
BACKGROUND Drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major limitation in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Several approaches are being investigated to improve drug delivery across the BBB. OBJECTIVE/METHODS This review deals with the role of nanobiotechnology in CNS drug delivery. The small size of the nanoparticles(More)
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD Personalized medicine has extended to management of cancer and implies prescription of specific therapeutics best suited for an individual patient and the type of tumor. These principles have been applied to cancer vaccines. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW Various cancer vaccines that can be personalized. Tumor-derived vaccines have(More)
Molecular diagnostics play an important role in development of personalized medicine and may be termed personalized diagnostics. This chapter shows the role of various diagnostic technologies in personalizing treatment. Besides polymerase chain reaction (PCR), several non-PCR methods, biochips/microarrays, and nanobiotechnologies play an important role.(More)
  • K K Jain
  • 2013
Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our(More)
BACKGROUND Nanobiotechnologies are being applied to molecular diagnostics and several technologies are in development. METHODS This review describes nanobiotechnologies that are already incorporated in molecular diagnostics or have potential applications in clinical diagnosis. Selected promising technologies from published literature as well as some(More)
  • Kewal K Jain
  • 2005
Nanotechnology-the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-has been applied to molecular diagnostics. This article reviews nanobiotechnologies that are clinically relevant and have the potential to be incorporated in clinical laboratory diagnosis. Nanotechnologies enable the diagnosis at(More)
  • K K Jain
  • 2000
Parecoxib is a prodrug of valdecoxib, which is a potent and selective inhibitor of COX-2. Intravenous preparation of parecoxib is in Phase III clinical trials for the management of acute and severe post-surgical pain. It is the only COX-2 inhibitor that is available in a parenteral formulation. Clinical results compare parecoxib with ketorolac, a NSAID,(More)