Kewal K . Jain

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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is meant to protect the brain from noxious agents; however, it also significantly hinders the delivery of therapeutics to the brain. Several strategies have been employed to deliver drugs across this barrier and some of these may do structural damage to the BBB by forcibly opening it to allow the uncontrolled passage of drugs.(More)
Nanotechnology-the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-has been applied to molecular diagnostics. This article reviews nanobiotechnologies that are clinically relevant and have the potential to be incorporated in clinical laboratory diagnosis. Nanotechnologies enable the diagnosis at(More)
Nanomedicine is the application of nanobiotechnologies to medicine. This article starts with the basics of nanobiotechnology, followed by its applications in molecular diagnostics, nanodiagnostics, and improvements in the discovery, design and delivery of drugs, including nanopharmaceuticals. It will improve biological therapies such as vaccination, cell(More)
Nanotechnology extends the limits of molecular diagnostics to the nanoscale. Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of microfluidic/lab-on-a-chip technology. Biological tests measuring the presence or activity of selected substances become quicker, more sensitive and more flexible when certain nanoscale particles are put to work as tags or labels.(More)
This is an overview of drug delivery systems (DDS), starting with various routes of drug administration. Various drug formulations, as well as devices used for drug delivery and targeted drug delivery, are then described. Delivery of proteins and peptides presents special challenges. Nanoparticles are considered to be important in refining drug delivery;(More)
BACKGROUND Nanobiotechnologies are being applied to molecular diagnostics and several technologies are in development. METHODS This review describes nanobiotechnologies that are already incorporated in molecular diagnostics or have potential applications in clinical diagnosis. Selected promising technologies from published literature as well as some(More)
Fifty-four patients with advanced breast cancer who had failed prior non-anthracycline combination chemotherapy were randomized to treatment with either epirubicin 85 mg/m2 or doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 intravenously every three weeks. Of 52 evaluable patients, 25% (six of 24) treated with epirubicin, and 25% (seven of 28) treated with doxorubicin experienced(More)
Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a primary malignant tumor of the brain, is one of the most challenging problems as no currently available treatment is curative. Surgery remains the basic treatment in which the bulk of the tumor is removed and the peripheral infiltrating part is the target of supplementary treatments. The currently available(More)
A DNA microarray system is usually comprised of DNA probes formatted on a microscale on a glass surface (chip), plus the instruments needed to handle samples (automated robotics), to read the reporter molecules (scanners) and analyse the data (bioinformatic tools). Biochips are formed by in situ (on chip) synthesis of oligonucleotides or peptide nucleic(More)