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The distal component of the talo-crural joint, the talus, was compared, using geometric morphometrics, in 219 specimens from nine extant taxa to identify differences in shape and the factors influencing them. The specimens were laser scanned, digitally reconstructed, and landmarked. The whole talus, proximal and distal articular facet subgroups were(More)
The appositional articular morphology of the talo-crural joint is the third component of the joint complex. It is a site of internal integration of this highly stable functional evolutionary unit. Prior studies of the other two components, tibia and talus, demonstrated that substrate preference influenced their articular shape. This effect was unrelated to(More)
The upper ankle joint forms a single articular plane between organism and the foot and substrate. Singular warp analysis shows that its shape reflects substrate use. This study explores whether the differences in shape are genetic with a developmental trajectory evident during ontogeny or epigenetic and the result of substrate use by the individual. A total(More)
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