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Supine weight-bearing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) alleviates some of the skeletal deconditioning induced by simulated weightlessness in men. We examined this potential beneficial effect in women. Because dietary acid load affected the degree of bone resorption in men during bed rest, we also investigated this variable in women.(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollutants from wildfires and obesity independently exacerbate asthma, yet no study has determined the combined effects of these 2 variables on asthma outcomes. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of 2 catastrophic wildfires affecting the Southern California region (in 2003 and 2007) on several asthma outcomes in a cohort of children. (More)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Atherosclerotic lesions contain monocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells and T lymphocytes. Here, we review the role of T-lymphocyte subsets in atherosclerosis. Among CD4⁺T cells, T(h)1 cells are pro-atherogenic, T(reg) cells are athero-protective and the role of T(h)2 and T(h)17 cells(More)
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a measure of a person's skeletal mineral content, and assessing BMD by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) can help to diagnose diseases of low bone density. In this study, we determine the heritability of BMD in male and female monozygotic twin subjects using DEXA in 13 specific anatomical regions. In an attempt to quantify the(More)
Environmental variables responsible for the increasing allergic disease burden observed in developed countries over the last century have yet to be adequately characterized. Meta-analyses of epidemiological studies presented in the first half of this paper demonstrate a correlation between farm-associated exposures (i.e., livestock, pets, unpasteurized(More)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Adaptive immunity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recently, modulation of the immune response against atherosclerotic plaque antigen(s) has attracted attention as a potentially preventive and therapeutic approach. Here, we review a series of studies on(More)
Specification of mammalian T lymphocytes involves prolonged developmental plasticity even after lineage-specific gene expression begins. Expression of transcription factor PU.1 may maintain some myeloid-like developmental alternatives until commitment. Commitment could reflect PU.1 shutoff, resistance to PU.1 effects, and/or imposition of a suicide penalty(More)
In addition to genetics, several environmental variables appear to impact allergic risk. Meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies presented in this article demonstrate a correlation between specific ambient exposures (eg, livestock, pets, endotoxin, and unpasteurized milk ingestion) and reduced allergic risk during childhood. Additional laboratory(More)
Heterochromatin in the nucleus of human embryonic cells plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The architecture of heterochromatin and its dynamic organization remain elusive because of the lack of fast and high-resolution deep-cell imaging tools. We enable this task by advancing instrumental and algorithmic implementation(More)
Innate responses to microbes are mediated in large part by toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognise a diverse range of molecules produced by viruses, bacteria and fungi. Great effort has been directed towards translating this knowledge into the development of new therapies for a wide spectrum of diseases, including infectious, malignant, autoimmune and(More)