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Using high-density oligonucleotide arrays representing essentially all nonrepetitive sequences on human chromosomes 21 and 22, we map the binding sites in vivo for three DNA binding transcription factors, Sp1, cMyc, and p53, in an unbiased manner. This mapping reveals an unexpectedly large number of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) regions, with a(More)
We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about(More)
A system of biological containment for recombinant DNA experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's/Baker's yeast) is described. The principle of containment is sterility: the haploid host strains all contain a mating-type-non-specific sterile mutation. The hosts also contain four auxotrophic mutations suitable for selection for the various kinds of(More)
The yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 is 1 of over 30 identified eukaryotic proteins containing the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA-binding motif. We have determined the crystal structure of the GCN4 bZIP element complexed with DNA at 2.9 A resolution. The bZIP dimer is a pair of continuous alpha helices that form a parallel coiled coil over their(More)
We assess the role of intrinsic histone-DNA interactions by mapping nucleosomes assembled in vitro on genomic DNA. Nucleosomes strongly prefer yeast DNA over Escherichia coli DNA, indicating that the yeast genome evolved to favor nucleosome formation. Many yeast promoter and terminator regions intrinsically disfavor nucleosome formation, and nucleosomes(More)
A number of proteins and drugs have been implicated in the process of transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II, but the factors that govern the elongation rate (nucleotide additions per min) and processivity (nucleotide additions per initiation event) in vivo are poorly understood. Here, we show that a mutation in the Rpb2 subunit of Pol II(More)
The essential yeast proteins Yra1 and Sub2 are messenger RNA export factors that have conserved counterparts in metazoans, designated Aly and UAP56, respectively. These factors couple the machineries that function in splicing and export of mRNA. Here we show that both Yra1 and Sub2 are stoichiometrically associated with the heterotetrameric THO complex,(More)
The bicoid (bcd) protein is expressed in an anteroposterior gradient in early Drosophila embryos and controls the zygotic activation of the segmentation gene hunchback (hb) in a broad but precisely bounded anterior domain. Here we show that the hb gene contains multiple regulatory elements that mediate transcriptional activation in response to bcd protein.(More)