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This paper investigates the ability of sparse line drawings to depict 3D shape. We perform a study in which people are shown an image of one of twelve 3D objects depicted with one of six styles and asked to orient a gauge to coincide with the surface normal at many positions on the object's surface. The normal estimates are compared with each other and with(More)
Inferring the mental states of other agents, including their goals and intentions, is a central problem in cognition. A critical aspect of this problem is that one cannot observe mental states directly, but must infer them from observable actions. To study the computational mechanisms underlying this inference, we created a two-dimensional virtual(More)
Comprehension of goal-directed, intentional motion is an important but understudied visual function. To study it, we created a two-dimensional virtual environment populated by independently-programmed autonomous virtual agents, which navigate the environment, collecting food and competing with one another. Their behavior is modulated by a small number of(More)
Background Environment Discussion Agents: Several independent agents interact in a virtual environment (Fig. A) Actions/Goal: Agents can choose from four basic action states: explore, gather food, attack, and hide Choice of actions is determined by an evolutionary algorithm, which adapts the agents to the environment and each other Agents score points when(More)
1 Bas-relief fitting to median response The calculation for the average error from the median response with bas-relief fitting shown in Table 2 of Cole, et al. [2009] is incorrect. The calculation was erroneously made by first finding the median orientation without bas-relief fitting, then applying bas-relief fitting between each participant's responses(More)
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