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This paper investigates the ability of sparse line drawings to depict 3D shape. We perform a study in which people are shown an image of one of twelve 3D objects depicted with one of six styles and asked to orient a gauge to coincide with the surface normal at many positions on the object's surface. The normal estimates are compared with each other and with(More)
Comprehension of goal-directed, intentional motion is an important but understudied visual function. To study it, we created a two-dimensional virtual environment populated by independently-programmed autonomous virtual agents, which navigate the environment, collecting food and competing with one another. Their behavior is modulated by a small number of(More)
Inferring the mental states of other agents, including their goals and intentions, is a central problem in cognition. A critical aspect of this problem is that one cannot observe mental states directly, but must infer them from observable actions. To study the computational mechanisms underlying this inference, we created a two-dimensional virtual(More)
1 Bas-relief fitting to median response The calculation for the average error from the median response with bas-relief fitting shown in Table 2 of Cole, et al. [2009] is incorrect. The calculation was erroneously made by first finding the median orientation without bas-relief fitting, then applying bas-relief fitting between each participant's responses(More)
Because humans cannot know one another's minds directly, every form of communication is a solution to the same basic problem: how can privately held information be made publicly accessible through manipulations of the physical environment? Language is by far the best studied response to this challenge. But there is a diversity of non-linguistic strategies(More)
Background Environment Discussion Agents: Several independent agents interact in a virtual environment (Fig. A) Actions/Goal: Agents can choose from four basic action states: explore, gather food, attack, and hide Choice of actions is determined by an evolutionary algorithm, which adapts the agents to the environment and each other Agents score points when(More)
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