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High extracellular NaCl, such as in the renal medulla, can perturb and even kill cells, but cells mount protective responses that enable them to survive and function. Many high-NaCl-induced perturbations and protective responses are known, but the signaling pathways involved are less clear. Change in protein phosphorylation is a common mode of cell(More)
Microbes have developed resistance to nearly every antibiotic, yet the steps leading to drug resistance remain unclear. Here we report a multistage process by which Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquires drug resistance following exposure to ciprofloxacin at levels ranging from 0.5× to 8× the initial MIC. In stage I, susceptible cells are killed en masse by the(More)
UNLABELLED Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains have been examined at the DNA sequence level, but seldom using large-scale quantitative proteomics. We have compared the proteome of the multidrug resistant strain BAA-1605, with the proteome of the drug-sensitive strain ATCC 17978, using iTRAQ labeling and online 2D LC/MS/MS for peptide/protein(More)
The identification of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry relies on knowledge of the products produced by collision-induced dissociation of peptide ions. Most previous work has focused on fragmentation statistics for ion trap systems. We analyzed fragmentation in MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, collecting statistics using a curated set of 2459 MS/MS(More)
For MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we show that the intensity of a peptide-ion peak is directly correlated with its sequence, with the residues M, H, P, R, and L having the most substantial effect on ionization. We developed a machine learning approach that exploits this relationship to significantly improve peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) accuracy based on(More)
The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly,(More)
NFAT5 is a transcription factor originally identified because it is activated by hypertonicity and that activation increases expression of genes that protect against the adverse effects of the hypertonicity. However, its targets also include genes not obviously related to tonicity. The transactivating domain of NFAT5 is contained in its c-terminal region,(More)
NFAT5 is an osmoregulated transcription factor that particularly increases expression of genes involved in protection against hypertonicity. Transcription factors often contain unstructured regions that bind co-regulatory proteins that are crucial for their function. The NH2-terminal region of NFAT5 contains regions predicted to be intrinsically disordered.(More)
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