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This protocol includes the designs and software necessary to upgrade an existing stereotaxic instrument to a robotic (CNC) stereotaxic instrument for around $1,000 (excluding a drill), using industry standard stepper motors and CNC controlling software. Each axis has variable speed control and may be operated simultaneously or independently. The robot's(More)
In vivo electrophysiological recordings in the awake, behaving animal provide a powerful method for understanding neural signaling at the single-cell level. The technique allows experimenters to examine temporally and regionally specific firing patterns in order to correlate recorded action potentials with ongoing behavior. Moreover, single-unit recordings(More)
Long Evans rats (n=32) were trained for 2 weeks to respond to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) which signaled the delivery of a 20% sucrose unconditioned stimulus (US) with varying probabilities. Animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. In the control groups, the CS signaled sucrose delivery with equal probabilities across two weeks, at 100%(More)
RATIONALE It has been proposed that cocaine abuse results in skilled or "automatic" drug-taking behaviors. Brain regions important for skill learning are implicated in cocaine self-administration. However, the development of skill during self-administration has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES The present experiment investigated the development of(More)
In this paper, we describe hollow-cone dark field (HCDF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, with a slightly convergent beam, as an improved technique that is suitable to form high contrast micrographs for nanocrystalline grain size quantification. We also examine the various factors that influence the HCDF TEM image quality, including the(More)
Interest in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has generated numerous scientific studies of its neuropathologies, as well as its roles in normal sensorimotor integration and learning. Studies are informed by knowledge of DLS functional organization, the guiding principle being its somatotopic afferent projections from primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1)(More)
A modified back-etch method is described that has been successfully used to prepare samples of thin films and nanoparticles on Si wafer substrates for examination by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). This process includes ultrasonic cutting, abrasive pre-thinning and a two-stage etching procedure. Unlike previous reports of(More)
As drug use becomes chronic, aberrant striatal processing contributes to the development of perseverative drug-taking behaviors. Two particular portions of the striatum, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), are known to undergo neurobiological changes from acute to chronic drug use. However, little is known about the exact(More)
We revisit grain growth and the puzzle of its stagnation in thin metallic films. We bring together a large body of experimental data that includes the size of more than 30,000 grains obtained from 23 thin film samples of Al and Cu with thicknesses in the range of 25 to 158 nm. In addition to grain size, a broad range of other metrics such as the number of(More)