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Although exceptional examples of adaptation are frequently celebrated, some outcomes of natural selection seem far from perfect. For example, many hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) are harmless (Batesian) mimics of stinging Hymenoptera. However, although some hoverfly species are considered excellent mimics, other species bear only a superficial resemblance(More)
Experiments indicating learning in the context of courtship in fruit flies challenge the prevailing views that male insects are either indiscriminate or rely on innate rules for courtship. We investigated the conditions favouring learning during courtship in insects by using a model that compared a learning strategy to two alternatives, indiscriminate(More)
A common predator or anti-predator strategy involves camouflage based on background matching. In some systems, the background is an organism whose fitness is affected by the predator-prey interaction. In these cases, the phenotype of the background species may evolve to affect the degree of background matching in the predator-prey interaction. For example,(More)
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