Kevin P Delaney

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Estimation of HIV-1 incidence is an important public health tool for understanding the status of the epidemic, identifying high-risk populations, and assessing various intervention strategies. Several laboratory-based methods have been developed for distinguishing recent from long-term HIV-1 infection; however, each exhibits some degree of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of a rapid HIV antibody test used with whole blood and oral fluid in settings where the test is likely to be used. DESIGN In four separate studies, we compared the accuracy of the rapid test performed on whole blood and oral fluid specimens with the results of conventional HIV tests. METHODS Oral fluid and whole(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved 6 rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests for use in the United States. To date, there has been no direct comparison of the performance of all 6 tests. METHODS Persons known to be HIV-infected and persons who sought HIV testing at 2 clinical sites in Los Angeles, California,(More)
BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) testing is a less-invasive alternative to blood-based testing for HIV. The performance of HIV OF tests has not been extensively evaluated in serially collected paired specimens from seroconverters. OBJECTIVE To compare paired OF and plasma test performance in a cohort of HIV-1 seroconverters from Nigeria. STUDY DESIGN Paired(More)
OBJECTIVE Nonmydriatic fundus photography by non-ophthalmic-trained personnel has recently been shown to be a potential alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in the emergency department (ED). We evaluated the reliability of a novel quality rating scale and applied this scale to nonmydriatic fundus photographs taken during routine ED patient encounters to(More)
BACKGROUND There is a paucity of data on the national population-level effectiveness of preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. We assessed national PMTCT impact in South Africa (SA), 2010. METHODS A facility-based survey was conducted using a stratified multistage, cluster sampling(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide, many countries test for HIV infection using combination assays that simultaneously detect p24 antigen and HIV antibodies. One such assay, the ARCHITECT(®) HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay (ARCHITECT), has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of(More)
BACKGROUND In March 2004, the OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004-June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in(More)
BACKGROUND Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) depends on the timing of HIV infection. We estimated HIV-seroconversion during pregnancy (HSP) after having a HIV-negative result antenatally, and its contribution to early MTCT in South Africa (SA). METHODS AND FINDINGS Between August 2011 and March 2012, we recruited a nationally representative(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 Western blot (WB) may be positive in specimens from persons with HIV-2 infection due to cross-reactive antibodies. HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections may be identified using assays designed to differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibody reactivity. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the ability of the current CDC WB criteria, alternative more stringent HIV-1 WB(More)