Kevin P. D. Kelly

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For 350 million years, ®sh have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air±liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this(More)
Objective: To compare gas exchange, lung mechanics, and survival to 12 h in surfactant-depleted lung-injured rabbits, treated with partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbon, nebulised perfluorocarbon, and porcine or artificial surfactant. Design: Prospective randomised controlled study. Setting: Animal laboratory, University of Edinburgh, UK.(More)
Ventilatory impairment may be detected by a rise in transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels (PtcCO(2)). This observational study assessed the clinical utility of PtcCO(2) monitoring in the postoperative period, and quantified the effect of different peri-operative analgesic regimens on postoperative respiratory function. Following pre-operative baseline(More)
BACKGROUND Processed EEG monitoring of anaesthetic depth could be useful in patients receiving general anaesthesia following subarachnoid haemorrhage. We conducted an observational study comparing performance characteristics of bispectral index (BIS) and entropy monitoring systems in these patients. METHODS Thirty-one patients of the World Federation of(More)
On an evolutionary time scale, liquid ventilation is not new. Land-dwelling vertebrates derived from fish 350 million years ago, and fish continue to breathe through a liquid medium. However, the ability to sustain mammalian respiration artificially by a liquid ventilation technique is generally accredited to work in the early 1960s, where mice were kept(More)
It is well known that a splash occurs when an object impacts at high velocity on a liquid’s surface. If the impact is fast enough, surface tension and air pressure gradients pull the crown-shape splash all the way towards the axis of symmetry, making it to collapse and seal the surface. In this paper we show that splash and surface sealing are also observed(More)
BACKGROUND Perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid can improve gas exchange in acute lung injury. How PFC aerosol is distributed in the lung is unknown. METHODS We induced lung injury in rabbits with saline lavage, followed by mechanical ventilation in the supine position. The animals were divided into three groups: a control group, a group treated with partial(More)