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Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are(More)
The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are a family of related enzymes which catalyze the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA esters, transferring electrons to electron-transferring flavoprotein. A cDNA for human short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase has recently been cloned, and it has been suggested that this enzyme represents the human homolog for the(More)
The proteasomal ATPase ring, comprising Rpt1-Rpt6, associates with the heptameric α-ring of the proteasome core particle (CP) in the mature proteasome, with the Rpt carboxy-terminal tails inserting into pockets of the α-ring. Rpt ring assembly is mediated by four chaperones, each binding a distinct Rpt subunit. Here we report that the base subassembly of(More)
The following review examines the role of calcium in promoting the in vitro and in vivo activation of transglutaminases in neurodegenerative disorders. Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease exhibit increased transglutaminase activity and rises in intracellular calcium concentrations, which may be related. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with defects in at least eight genes. The biochemical function(s) of the FA proteins are unknown, but together they define the FA pathway, which is involved in cellular responses to DNA damage and in other cellular processes. It is currently unknown whether all FA proteins are(More)
Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) is a homotetrameric mitochondrial flavoenzyme which catalyzes the conversion of isovaleryl-CoA to 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA. PCR of IVD genomic and complementary DNA was used to identify mutations occurring in patients with deficiencies in IVD activity. Western blotting, in vitro mitochondrial import, prokaryotic expression,(More)
The RSH/Smith--Lemli--Opitz syndrome (RSH/SLOS) is a human autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by multiple malformations, a distinct behavioral phenotype with autistic features and mental retardation. RSH/SLOS is due to an inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis caused by mutation of the 3 beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase gene. To further our(More)
The final step in the morphogenesis of long-tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages is the joining of the DNA-filled head to the tail. The connector is a specialized structure of the head that serves as the interface for tail attachment and the point of egress for DNA from the head during infection. Here, we report the determination of a 2.1 A crystal(More)
Human microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 is widely known for its ability to oxidize >70 different, mostly compact, low molecular weight drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. In addition CYP2E1 oxidizes much larger C9-C20 fatty acids that can serve as endogenous signaling molecules. Previously structures of CYP2E1 with small molecules revealed a small,(More)
Recent advances in the structural biology of the enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation have revealed their catalytic mechanisms and modes of substrate binding. Although these enzymes all use coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters as substrates, they share no common polypeptide folding topology or CoA-binding motif. Each family adopts an entirely unique protein(More)