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Dopamine and other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the major target of antipsychotic drugs. GPCRs undergo desensitization via activation-dependent phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) followed by arrestin binding. Arrestins and GRKs are major regulators of GPCR signaling. We elucidated changes in expression of two(More)
Arrestins are multifunctional signaling adaptors originally discovered as proteins that "arrest" G protein activation by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently GPCR complexes with arrestins have been proposed to activate G protein-independent signaling pathways. In particular, arrestin-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(More)
Dysregulation of signaling pathways is believed to contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology and l-DOPA-induced motor complications. Long-lived dopamine (DA) agonists are less likely to cause motor complications by virtue of continuous stimulation of DA receptors. In this study, we compared the effects of the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and(More)
The landscape of human phosphorylation networks has not been systematically explored, representing vast, unchartered territories within cellular signaling networks. Although a large number of in vivo phosphorylated residues have been identified by mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches, assigning the upstream kinases to these residues requires biochemical(More)
Vemurafenib and dabrafenib selectively inhibit the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) kinase, resulting in high response rates and increased survival in melanoma. Approximately 22% of individuals treated with vemurafenib develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) during therapy. The prevailing explanation for this is drug-induced(More)
Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K), through its phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (eEF2), provides a mechanism by which cells can control the rate of the elongation phase of protein synthesis. The activity of eEF-2K is increased in rapidly proliferating malignant cells, is inhibited during mitosis, and may contribute to the promotion of(More)
We are interested in the mechanism and regulation of the extracellular regulated protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2 due to their key roles in cellular signal transduction and disease. Both enzymes phosphorylate a large number of structurally disparate proteins upon activation by phorbol esters, serum and growth factors and are activated through a protein kinase(More)
The charge distribution of halogen atoms on organochlorine compounds can be highly anisotropic and even display a so-called σ-hole, which leads to strong halogen bonds with electron donors. In this paper, we have systematically investigated a series of chloromethanes with one to four chloro substituents using a polarizable multipole-based molecular(More)