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Dopamine and other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the major target of antipsychotic drugs. GPCRs undergo desensitization via activation-dependent phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) followed by arrestin binding. Arrestins and GRKs are major regulators of GPCR signaling. We elucidated changes in expression of two(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1; also known as p90rsk) contains two protein kinase domains in a single polypeptide. The N-terminal kinase domain is necessary for the phosphorylation of peptide substrates, whereas the C-terminal kinase domain is required for full activation of the N-terminal domain. Here we identify six(More)
The interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and microcystin (MC) was stable in 1% SDS or 70% formic acid indicative of a covalent interaction. Here we isolate the MC-binding peptide and demonstrate that Cys273 of PP1 binds covalently to the methyl-dehydroalanine (Mdha) residue of the toxin. Mutation of Cys273 to Ala, Ser or Leu abolished covalent(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of enzymes conserved among eukaryotes that regulate cellular activities in response to numerous external signals. They are the terminal component of a three-kinase cascade that is evolutionarily conserved and whose arrangement appears to offer considerable flexibility in encompassing the diverse(More)
Arrestins are multifunctional signaling adaptors originally discovered as proteins that "arrest" G protein activation by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently GPCR complexes with arrestins have been proposed to activate G protein-independent signaling pathways. In particular, arrestin-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(More)
The up-regulation of JNK activity is associated with a number of disease states. The JNK-JIP1 interaction represents an attractive target for the inhibition of JNK-mediated signaling. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on the apo-JNK1 and the JNK1•L-pepJIP1 and JNK1•D-pepJIP1 complexes to investigate the interaction between(More)
Evidence that elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) has potential as a target for anticancer therapy and possibly for the treatment of depression is emerging. Here the steady-state kinetic mechanism of eEF-2K is presented using a peptide substrate and is shown to conform to an ordered sequential mechanism with ATP binding first. Substrate inhibition by the(More)
PEA-15 is a small anti-apoptotic protein that is enriched in astrocytes, but expressed in a broad range of tissues. It sequesters the protein kinases ERK1 and 2 in the cytoplasm, thereby limiting their proximity to nuclear substrates. Using a fluorescence anisotropy approach, PEA-15 is shown to be a high-affinity ligand for both ERK1 and 2, exhibiting a(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, ERK2, fully activated by phosphorylation and without a His(6) tag, shows little tendency to dimerize with or without either calcium or magnesium ions when analyzed by light scattering or analytical ultracentrifugation. Light scattering shows that ~90% of ERK2 is monomeric. Sedimentation equilibrium data(More)