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Dopamine and other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the major target of antipsychotic drugs. GPCRs undergo desensitization via activation-dependent phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) followed by arrestin binding. Arrestins and GRKs are major regulators of GPCR signaling. We elucidated changes in expression of two(More)
The interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and microcystin (MC) was stable in 1% SDS or 70% formic acid indicative of a covalent interaction. Here we isolate the MC-binding peptide and demonstrate that Cys273 of PP1 binds covalently to the methyl-dehydroalanine (Mdha) residue of the toxin. Mutation of Cys273 to Ala, Ser or Leu abolished covalent(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of enzymes conserved among eukaryotes that regulate cellular activities in response to numerous external signals. They are the terminal component of a three-kinase cascade that is evolutionarily conserved and whose arrangement appears to offer considerable flexibility in encompassing the diverse(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, ERK2, fully activated by phosphorylation and without a His(6) tag, shows little tendency to dimerize with or without either calcium or magnesium ions when analyzed by light scattering or analytical ultracentrifugation. Light scattering shows that ~90% of ERK2 is monomeric. Sedimentation equilibrium data(More)
The up-regulation of JNK activity is associated with a number of disease states. The JNK-JIP1 interaction represents an attractive target for the inhibition of JNK-mediated signaling. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on the apo-JNK1 and the JNK1•L-pepJIP1 and JNK1•D-pepJIP1 complexes to investigate the interaction between(More)
Evidence that elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) has potential as a target for anticancer therapy and possibly for the treatment of depression is emerging. Here the steady-state kinetic mechanism of eEF-2K is presented using a peptide substrate and is shown to conform to an ordered sequential mechanism with ATP binding first. Substrate inhibition by the(More)
Arrestins are multifunctional signaling adaptors originally discovered as proteins that "arrest" G protein activation by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently GPCR complexes with arrestins have been proposed to activate G protein-independent signaling pathways. In particular, arrestin-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal pathway for degrading cytoplasmic proteins, macromolecules, and organelles. While autophagy has become one of the most attractive topics in cancer research, the current autophagy literature is often viewed as confusing, because of its association with apparently contradictory roles, such as survival and(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1; also known as p90rsk) contains two protein kinase domains in a single polypeptide. The N-terminal kinase domain is necessary for the phosphorylation of peptide substrates, whereas the C-terminal kinase domain is required for full activation of the N-terminal domain. Here we identify six(More)