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Most papers that employ Differences-inDifferences estimation (DD) use many years of data and focus on serially correlated outcomes but ignore that the resulting standard errors are inconsistent. To illustrate the severity of this issue, we randomly generate placebo laws in state-level data on female wages from the Current Population Survey. For each law, we(More)
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  • Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, +14 authors Mario Gamboa-Cavazos
  • 2002
We examine the effect of securities laws on market development in 49 countries. We find that public enforcement of laws benefits securities markets, especially in countries with efficient government bureaucracies. We also find that organization of private enforcement through disclosure and liability rules benefits securities markets in countries with both(More)
We develop an economic framework for valuing improvements to health and life expectancy, based on individuals' willingness to pay. We then apply the framework to past and prospective reductions in mortality risks, both overall and for specific life-threatening diseases. We calculate (i) the social values of increased longevity for men and women over the 20(More)
We present an equilibrium theory of the organization of work in an economy where knowledge is an essential input in production and agents are heterogeneous in skill. Agents organize production by matching with others in knowledge hierarchies designed to use and communicate their knowledge efficiently. Relative to autarky, organization leads to larger(More)
I develop a theory of stock-based compensation contracts for the chief executive officers (CEOs) of firms and confront the theoretical predictions with recent CEO compensation data. The model characterizes the optimal contract for a CEO whose reputation evolves as signals of the executive's ability are observed by shareholders. Using various proxies for CEO(More)
Basic research is a public good, for which social returns may greatly exceed private ones. This paper develops an economic framework for evaluating the social benefits of medical research. We begin with a model of the economic value of health and life expectancy, which we apply to US data on overall and disease-specific mortality rates. We calculate (i) the(More)
In 1987 the federal government permitted states to raise the speed limit on their rural interstate roads, but not on their urban interstate roads, from 55 mph to 65 mph for the first time in over a decade. Since the states that adopted the higher speed limit must have valued the travel hours they saved more than the fatalities incurred, this experiment(More)