Kevin Monahan

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OBJECTIVES We sought to determine a generalized equation for predicting maximal heart rate (HRmax) in healthy adults. BACKGROUND The age-predicted HRmax equation (i.e., 220 - age) is commonly used as a basis for prescribing exercise programs, as a criterion for achieving maximal exertion and as a clinical guide during diagnostic exercise testing. Despite(More)
BACKGROUND A reduction in compliance of the large-sized cardiothoracic (central) arteries is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease with advancing age. METHODS AND RESULTS We determined the role of habitual exercise on the age-related decrease in central arterial compliance by using both cross-sectional and interventional(More)
BACKGROUND In sedentary humans endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired with advancing age contributing to their increased cardiovascular risk, whereas endurance-trained adults demonstrate lower age-related risk. We determined the influence of regular aerobic exercise on the age-related decline in endothelium-dependent vasodilation. METHODS AND(More)
We determined the independent and interactive influences of aging and habitual endurance exercise on calf venous compliance in humans. We tested the hypotheses that calf venous compliance is 1) reduced with age in sedentary and endurance-trained men, and 2) elevated in young and older endurance-trained compared with age-matched sedentary men. We studied 8(More)
Peripheral conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation decreases with ageing in humans. The underlying mechanisms and efficacy of preventive strategies are unknown. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation was determined at baseline and after ascorbic acid (vitamin C) intravenous infusion and chronic supplementation (500 mg day(-1) for 30 days) in three groups(More)
1. In experimental animals chronic elevations in arterial blood flow increase the lumen diameter and reduce the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the arterial segment involved. We determined whether intermittent elevations in active muscle blood flow associated with regular aerobic leg exercise induced such expansive arterial remodelling in the common femoral(More)
The closely linked human protocadherin (Pcdh) α, β, and γ gene clusters encode 53 distinct protein isoforms, which are expressed in a combinatorial manner to generate enormous diversity on the surface of individual neurons. This diversity is a consequence of stochastic promoter choice and alternative pre-mRNA processing. Here, we show that Pcdhα promoter(More)
The mouse protocadherin (Pcdh) -α, -β, and -γ gene clusters encode more than 50 protein isoforms, the combinatorial expression of which generates vast single-cell diversity in the brain. At present, the mechanisms by which this diversity is expressed are not understood. Here we show that two transcriptional enhancer elements, HS5-1 and HS7, play a critical(More)
1. Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), the arterial baroreflex-mediated change in the R-R interval per unit change in systolic blood pressure, decreases with advancing age in sedentary adult humans. We determined the effects of regular aerobic exercise on the age-related decline in cardiovagal BRS. 2. In the cross-sectional study, 133 healthy men(More)
Cardiovascular-related mortality peaks during cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Acute physiological responses, such as increases in blood pressure, in response to cold exposure may contribute to these associations. To determine whether the blood pressure-raising effect (pressor response) of non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress(More)