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Yeast centromere DNA (CEN) affinity column chromatography has been used to purify several putative centromere and kinetochore proteins from yeast chromatin extracts. The single yeast gene (CBF5) specifying one of the major low-affinity centromere-binding proteins (p64'/CBF5p) has been cloned and shown to be essential for viability of Saccharomyces(More)
Flying animals may experience a selective constraint on gut volume because the energetic cost of flight increases and maneuverability decreases with greater digesta load. The small intestine is the primary site of absorption of most nutrients (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins, fat) in both birds and mammals. Therefore, we used a phylogenetically informed(More)
We have used in vitro motility assays to investigate the mechanism of kinetochore function in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional centromeric DNA plus a tripartite centromere binding protein complex, CBF3, was found to be necessary but not sufficient for in vitro kinetochore activity. A fourth required component was identified as the(More)
In this study we compared the wing kinematics of 27 bats representing six pteropodid species ranging more than 40 times in body mass (M(b)=0.0278-1.152 kg), to determine whether wing posture and overall wing kinematics scaled as predicted according to theory. The smallest species flew in a wind tunnel and the other five species in a flight corridor.(More)
Voluntary activity is a complex trait, comprising both behavioral (motivation, reward) and anatomical/physiological (ability) elements. In the present study, oxygen transport was investigated as a possible limitation to further increases in running by four replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and have(More)
During cell division, sister chromosomes segregate from each other on a microtubule-based structure called the mitotic spindle. Proteins bind to the centromere, a region of chromosomal DNA, to form the kinetochore, which mediates chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle microtubules. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genetic analysis has(More)
Unlike flapping birds and insects, bats possess membrane wings that are more similar to many gliding mammals. The vast majority of the wing is composed of a thin compliant skin membrane stretched between the limbs, hand, and body. Membrane wings are of particular interest because they may offer many advantages to micro air vehicles. One critical feature of(More)
Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in elevated baseline glucocorticoid concentrations is a hallmark of stress-related human anxiety and affective disorders, including depression. Mice from four replicate lines bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) run almost three times as much as four non-selected control (C) lines,(More)
Exercise is a naturally rewarding behaviour in human beings and can be associated with feelings of euphoria and analgesia. The endocannabinoid system may play a role in the perception of neurobiological rewards during and after prolonged exercise. Mice from lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (high runner or HR lines) may(More)
From outbred Hsd:ICR mice, we selectively bred 4 replicate lines for high running (High-Runner [HR] lines) on wheels while maintaining 4 nonselected lines as controls (C lines). An apparent Mendelian recessive, the "mini-muscle" (MM) allele, whose main phenotypic effect is to reduce hindlimb muscle mass by 50%, was discovered in 2 HR lines and 1 C line.(More)