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Flying animals may experience a selective constraint on gut volume because the energetic cost of flight increases and maneuverability decreases with greater digesta load. The small intestine is the primary site of absorption of most nutrients (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins, fat) in both birds and mammals. Therefore, we used a phylogenetically informed(More)
From outbred Hsd:ICR mice, we selectively bred 4 replicate lines for high running (High-Runner [HR] lines) on wheels while maintaining 4 nonselected lines as controls (C lines). An apparent Mendelian recessive, the "mini-muscle" (MM) allele, whose main phenotypic effect is to reduce hindlimb muscle mass by 50%, was discovered in 2 HR lines and 1 C line.(More)
Voluntary activity is a complex trait, comprising both behavioral (motivation, reward) and anatomical/physiological (ability) elements. In the present study, oxygen transport was investigated as a possible limitation to further increases in running by four replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and have(More)
In this study we compared the wing kinematics of 27 bats representing six pteropodid species ranging more than 40 times in body mass (M(b)=0.0278-1.152 kg), to determine whether wing posture and overall wing kinematics scaled as predicted according to theory. The smallest species flew in a wind tunnel and the other five species in a flight corridor.(More)
Exercise is a naturally rewarding behaviour in human beings and can be associated with feelings of euphoria and analgesia. The endocannabinoid system may play a role in the perception of neurobiological rewards during and after prolonged exercise. Mice from lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (high runner or HR lines) may(More)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in regulation of various physiological functions, including locomotion, antinociception, emotional states, and motivated behaviors. The ECS has been implicated in regulation of voluntary wheel running in mice via actions at the cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1). Previously, we showed that four replicate lines of mice(More)
Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in elevated baseline glucocorticoid concentrations is a hallmark of stress-related human anxiety and affective disorders, including depression. Mice from four replicate lines bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) run almost three times as much as four non-selected control (C) lines,(More)
The response to uniform selection may occur in alternate ways that result in similar performance. We tested for multiple adaptive solutions during artificial selection for high voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice. At generation 43, the four replicate high runner (HR) lines averaged 2.85-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected(More)
We present a novel mouse-model for the study of skeletal structure and evolution, based on selective breeding for high levels of voluntary wheel running. Whereas traditional models (originally inbred strains, more recently knockouts and transgenics) rely on the study of mutant or laboratory-manipulated phenotypes, we have studied changes in skeletal(More)
Experimental measurements and analysis of the flight of bats are presented, including kinematic analysis of high-speed stereo videography of straight and turning flight, and measurements of the wake velocity field behind the bat. The kinematic data reveal that, at relatively slow flight speeds, wing motion is quite complex, including a sharp retraction of(More)