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Olfactory receptor neurons are produced continuously in mammalian olfactory epithelium in vivo, but in explant cultures neurogenesis ceases abruptly. We show that in vitro neurogenesis is prolonged by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which act in two ways. FGFs increase the likelihood that immediate neuronal precursors (INPs) divide twice, rather than(More)
Several FGF family members are expressed in skeletal muscle; however, the roles of these factors in skeletal muscle development are unclear. We examined the RNA expression, protein levels, and biological activities of the FGF family in the MM14 mouse skeletal muscle cell line. Proliferating skeletal muscle cells express FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-6, and FGF-7 mRNA.(More)
Muscle contraction stimulates glucose transport independent of insulin. Glucose uptake into muscle cells is positively related to skeletal muscle-specific glucose transporter (GLUT-4) expression. Therefore, our objective was to determine the effects of the contraction-mediated signals, calcium and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), on glucose uptake and(More)
Muscle disuse has numerous physiological consequences that end up with significant catabolic metabolism and ultimately tissue atrophy. What is not known is how muscle atrophy affects the endocannabinoid (EC) system. Arachidonic acid (AA) is the substrate for anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylgycerol (2-AG), which act as agonists for cannabinoid receptors(More)
Skeletal muscle is composed of diverse fiber types, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for this diversification remain unclear. Herein, we report that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway, but not p38 or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), is preferentially activated in fast-twitch muscles. Pharmacological blocking of(More)
The signal transduction cascades that maintain muscle mass remain to be fully defined. Herein, we report that inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling in vitro decreases myotube size and protein content after 3-day treatment with a MEK inhibitor. Neither p38 nor JNK inhibitors had any effect on myotube size or morphology.(More)
The loss of normal weight-bearing activity, which occurs during bed rest, limb immobilization, and spaceflight, stimulates a catabolic response within the musculoskeletal system, which results in a loss of skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral. The mechanism by which loading of muscle and bone is sensed and translated into signals controlling tissue(More)
The molecular mechanisms controlling beta-adrenergic receptor agonist (BA)-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy are not well known. We presently report that BA exerts a distinct muscle- and muscle fiber type-specific hypertrophy. Moreover, we have shown that pharmacologically or genetically attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of nine proteins that bind to three distinct types of cell surface molecules: (i) FGF receptor tyrosine kinases (FGFR-1 through FGFR-4); (ii) a cysteine-rich FGF receptor (CFR); and (iii) heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Signaling by FGFs requires participation of at least two of these receptors: the FGFRs(More)
BACKGROUND Electroporation (EP) is a widely used non-viral gene transfer method. We have attempted to develop an exact protocol to maximize DNA expression while minimizing tissue damage following EP of skeletal muscle in vivo. Specifically, we investigated the effects of varying injection techniques, electrode surface geometry, and plasmid mediums. (More)