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Evidence of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been reported for 26 different species of African nonhuman primates. Two of these viruses, SIVcpz from chimpanzees and SIVsm from sooty mangabeys, are the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Together, they have been transmitted to humans on at least seven occasions. The(More)
BACKGROUND Roughly 3 million people worldwide were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2007, but an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of treatment and a further 2.7 million became infected with HIV in 2007. Prevention efforts might reduce HIV incidence but are unlikely to eliminate this disease. We investigated a theoretical strategy(More)
BACKGROUND There is a high incidence of opportunistic infection among HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis in Africa and, consequently, high mortality. We assessed the safety and efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole 800 mg/160 mg (co-trimoxazole) prophylaxis in prevention of such infections and in decrease of morbidity and mortality. METHODS(More)
Approaches to the prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa have been heavily based on early experiences and policies from industrialised countries, where the disease affects specific risk groups. HIV/AIDS has been dealt with differently from other sexually transmitted or lethal infectious diseases, despite being Africa's leading cause of(More)
We hypothesized that rapid presentation may be a general feature of tuberculosis (TB) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that limits the impact of HIV on the point prevalence of TB. To investigate this, we performed a cross-sectional HIV and TB disease survey with retrospective and prospective follow-up. HIV prevalence among 1,773(More)
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
WHO has proposed a public-health approach to antiretroviral therapy (ART) to enable scaling-up access to treatment for HIV-positive people in developing countries, recognising that the western model of specialist physician management and advanced laboratory monitoring is not feasible in resource-poor settings. In this approach, standardised simplified(More)
We examined the severity of immune deficiency in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Côte d'Ivoire and assessed its effect on mortality and response to treatment. Consecutive patients attending a tuberculosis treatment centre in Abidjan with smear-positive pulmonary or clinically diagnosed extrapulmonary tuberculosis were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2(More)
Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment programmes is happening in Africa, driven by international advocacy and policy directives and supported by unprecedented donor funding and technical assistance. This welcome development offers hope to millions of HIV-infected Africans, among whom tuberculosis is the major cause of serious illness and death. Little(More)