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BACKGROUND Roughly 3 million people worldwide were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2007, but an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of treatment and a further 2.7 million became infected with HIV in 2007. Prevention efforts might reduce HIV incidence but are unlikely to eliminate this disease. We investigated a theoretical strategy(More)
Evidence of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been reported for 26 different species of African nonhuman primates. Two of these viruses, SIVcpz from chimpanzees and SIVsm from sooty mangabeys, are the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Together, they have been transmitted to humans on at least seven occasions. The(More)
A gold mining work force was followed prospectively over 1 yr for sputum nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) isolates. NTM were isolated from 118 men, of whom 32 (27%) met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) case-definitions for pulmonary NTM disease (23 M. kansasii, seven M. scrofulaceum, one M. avium, and one M. abscessus). Determining isolate significance(More)
WHO has proposed a public-health approach to antiretroviral therapy (ART) to enable scaling-up access to treatment for HIV-positive people in developing countries, recognising that the western model of specialist physician management and advanced laboratory monitoring is not feasible in resource-poor settings. In this approach, standardised simplified(More)
BACKGROUND There is a high incidence of opportunistic infection among HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis in Africa and, consequently, high mortality. We assessed the safety and efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole 800 mg/160 mg (co-trimoxazole) prophylaxis in prevention of such infections and in decrease of morbidity and mortality. METHODS(More)
More than 18 million persons in the world are estimated to have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As immunodeficiency progresses, these persons become susceptible to a wide variety of opportunistic infections (OIs) The spectrum of OIs varies among regions of the world.(More)
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
OBJECTIVES The current status of and changes in the HIV epidemic in the United States are described. METHODS Surveillance data were used to evaluate time trends in AIDS diagnoses and deaths. Estimates of HIV incidence were derived from studies done during the 1990s; time trends in recent HIV incidence were inferred from HIV diagnoses and seroprevalence(More)
In the United States, HIV prevention programs have historically tailored activities for specific groups primarily on the basis of behavioral risk factors and demographic characteristics. Through the Serostatus Approach to Fighting the Epidemic (SAFE), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is now expanding prevention programs, especially for(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the spectrum of opportunistic disease in HIV-infected patients admitted to hospital in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and to describe the level of immunosuppression at which these diseases occur. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING In-patient wards of the University Hospital Infectious Diseases Unit. PATIENTS A total of 250 adult(More)