Kevin M. De Cock

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BACKGROUND Roughly 3 million people worldwide were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2007, but an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of treatment and a further 2.7 million became infected with HIV in 2007. Prevention efforts might reduce HIV incidence but are unlikely to eliminate this disease. We investigated a theoretical strategy(More)
Evidence of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been reported for 26 different species of African nonhuman primates. Two of these viruses, SIVcpz from chimpanzees and SIVsm from sooty mangabeys, are the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Together, they have been transmitted to humans on at least seven occasions. The(More)
WHO has proposed a public-health approach to antiretroviral therapy (ART) to enable scaling-up access to treatment for HIV-positive people in developing countries, recognising that the western model of specialist physician management and advanced laboratory monitoring is not feasible in resource-poor settings. In this approach, standardised simplified(More)
Each year, an estimated 590,000 infants acquire human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection from their mothers, mostly in developing countries that are unable to implement interventions now standard in the industrialized world. In resource-poor settings, the HIV pandemic has eroded hard-won gains in infant and child survival. Recent clinical trial(More)
Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment programmes is happening in Africa, driven by international advocacy and policy directives and supported by unprecedented donor funding and technical assistance. This welcome development offers hope to millions of HIV-infected Africans, among whom tuberculosis is the major cause of serious illness and death. Little(More)
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
In the United States, HIV prevention programs have historically tailored activities for specific groups primarily on the basis of behavioral risk factors and demographic characteristics. Through the Serostatus Approach to Fighting the Epidemic (SAFE), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is now expanding prevention programs, especially for(More)
OBJECTIVES To review data on the extent of HIV infection and associated risk behaviors, the occurrence of AIDS, and HIV-related mortality in African Americans and to suggest what can be done to reduce HIV exposure and infection in this population. DESIGN/METHODS Review of epidemiologic, published, multisite data on HIV infection in, and related behaviors(More)
BACKGROUND Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to(More)
A cohort of 1792 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 2970 HIV-negative South African miners was observed for 12 months starting in February 1998. All-cause hospitalizations and deaths were significantly associated with HIV infection (respective unadjusted incidence rate ratios, 2.9 and 9.2; respective 95% confidence intervals, 2.5-3.4 and(More)