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Immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporin have allowed widespread organ transplantation, but their utility remains limited by toxicities, and they are ineffective in chronic management of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In contrast, the immune modulating drug FTY720 is efficacious in a variety of transplant and autoimmune models without(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid mediator that evokes a variety of cell and tissue responses via a set of cell surface receptors. The recent development of S1P receptor agonists, led by the immunomodulatory pro-drug FTY720, has revealed that S1P signaling is an important regulator of lymphocyte trafficking. With the twin goals of(More)
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with potent activity on smooth muscle which was isolated first from porcine spinal cord and later from other species. It is widely distributed in the gut and central nervous system. Peripheral activities of NMU include stimulation of smooth muscle, increase of blood pressure, alteration of ion transport in the gut,(More)
We report the discovery, tissue distribution and pharmacological characterization of a novel receptor, which we have named H4. Like the three histamine receptors reported previously (H1, H2, and H3), the H4 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor and is most closely related to the H3 receptor, sharing 58% identity in the transmembrane regions. The gene(More)
The physiological implications of lysophosphatidic acid occupancy of individual receptors are largely unknown because selective agonists/antagonists are unavailable currently. The molecular cloning of three high-affinity lysophosphatidic acid receptors, LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3, provides a platform for developing receptor type-selective ligands. Starting with(More)
The cysteinyl leukotrienes-leukotriene C4(LTC4), leukotriene D4(LTD4) and leukotriene E4(LTE4)-are important mediators of human bronchial asthma. Pharmacological studies have determined that cysteinyl leukotrienes activate at least two receptors, designated CysLT1 and CysLT2. The CysLT1-selective antagonists, such as montelukast (Singulair), zafirlukast(More)
The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are important mediators of human asthma. Pharmacologic and clinical studies show that the CysLTs exert most of their bronchoconstrictive and proinflammatory effects through activation of a putative, 7-transmembrane domain, G-protein-coupled receptor, the CysLT1 receptor. The initial molecular characterization of the(More)
Proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to impair cognition; consequently, immune activity in the central nervous system was considered detrimental to cognitive function. Unexpectedly, however, T cells were recently shown to support learning and memory, though the underlying mechanism was unclear. We show that one of the steps in the cascade of T(More)
We report here the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of novel genes encoding G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). A search of a mouse database of expressed sequence tags revealed an EST partially encoding a GPCR, which was used to screen a mouse genomic library to obtain the translational open reading frame (ORF). The(More)
Two G protein-coupled receptors (Edg-2) and (Edg-4) for the lysolipid phosphoric acid mediator lysophosphatidic acid have been described by molecular cloning. However, the calcium-mobilizing receptor Edg-4 is not expressed in some cell lines that exhibit robust calcium responses to this ligand, thus predicting the existence of additional receptor subtypes.(More)