Kevin Lee Macdonald

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BACKGROUND The frequency of the hemolytic uremic syndrome, characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure, is increasing. Although Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 has been implicated as a causative agent, more information is needed about the basic epidemiology and clinical aspects of this syndrome. METHODS We(More)
To determine the prevalence and epidemiology of enteropathogens in acute infantile diarrhea, 500 infants less than or equal to 12 months of age with diarrhea and 500 age-matched control subjects coming to a São Paulo emergency room were studied. Enteropathogens were identified in 55% of case infants and 10% of controls; enteropathogenic Escherichia coli(More)
Between June 30th and August 30th, 1983, 49 patients in Massachusetts acquired listeriosis. Seven cases occurred in fetuses or infants and 42 in immunosuppressed adults; 14 patients (29 per cent) died. Of 40 Listeria monocytogenes isolates available for testing, 32 were serotype 4b. Two case-control studies, one matching for neighborhood of residence and(More)
BACKGROUND Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of diarrhea and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Current public health surveillance for E. coli O157:H7 requires considerable resources; traditional methods lack the sensitivity and specificity to detect outbreaks effectively. METHODS During 1994 and 1995, the Minnesota Department of Health requested(More)
After two outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis associated with a previously unrecognized pathogen, Escherichia coli O157:H7, a surveillance system was established to identify and study sporadic cases of this distinct clinical illness in the United States. Between August 1982 and April 1984, we identified 28 persons from 11 states who met our case definition and(More)
To evaluate potential risk factors and protective factors for acute diarrheal disease in urban infants, 500 infants < or = 12 months old with diarrhea and 500 age-matched control subjects coming to a São Paulo emergency room were studied. On multivariate analysis, these apparently sporadic community-acquired cases of diarrhea were significantly associated(More)
Nine cases of severe hypotension or death compatible with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) as a complication of influenza and influenzalike illness were identified in Minnesota with onsets between Jan 2, 1986, and Feb 23, 1986, in which five of the patients died. During this time, an influenza outbreak was occurring in the state. Cultures of respiratory(More)
During a 6-w period from 20 April through 7 June 1986, an outbreak of giardiasis occurred in residents and employees of a nursing home and children participating in day care at the nursing home. Eighty-eight cases of giardiasis (defined by presence of clinical symptoms or results of stool examination) were identified from groups associated with the nursing(More)
BACKGROUND The eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome is a newly recognized illness that has been associated with the consumption of tryptophan products. It is not known whether the cause is related to the tryptophan itself or to chemical constituents introduced by the manufacturing process. METHODS To describe the epidemiology of the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome(More)
From 1982 to 1983 we received reports of a neurologic illness characterized by a symmetric descending paralysis in six drug abusers from widely separated geographic areas. Botulism was confirmed in two patients; type B botulinal toxin was found and Clostridium botulinum was isolated from a small abscess in one, and type A botulinal toxin was found in the(More)