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OBJECTIVE Psychiatric clinical studies, including those in drug abuse research, often provide data that are challenging to analyze and use for hypothesis testing because they are heavily skewed and marked by an abundance of zero values. The authors consider methods of analyzing data with those characteristics. METHOD The possible meaning of zero values(More)
OBJECTIVE This study analyzed questionnaire items that address complaints about sleep from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study, a nationally representative sample of the 3.1 million men and women who served in Vietnam. This study compared the frequency of nightmares and difficulties with sleep onset and sleep maintenance in male Vietnam theater(More)
CONTEXT Despite evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is effective for opioid dependence, it remains a controversial therapy because of its indefinite provision of a dependence-producing medication. OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes of patients with opioid dependence treated with MMT vs an alternative treatment, psychosocially enriched 180-day(More)
The error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential component elicited by error responses in cognitive tasks, has been shown to be abnormal in most, but not all, studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder or obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCD/S); these inconsistencies may be due to task selection, symptom subtype, or both. We used meta-analysis to(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability in the developed world, yet broadly effective treatments remain elusive. Up to 40% of patients with depression are unresponsive to at least two trials of antidepressant medication and thus have "treatment-resistant depression" (TRD). There is an urgent need for cost-effective,(More)
This study examined treatment outcomes among smokers with single versus multiple behavioral risks. Data were drawn from smokers (N = 2,326) participating in 3 population-based, multibehavioral studies targeting cigarette smoking, high-fat diets, and high-risk sun exposure. Outcomes were compared for participants at risk for smoking only (13%), smoking plus(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of cocaine-dependent subjects have shown that re-exposure to environmental cues previously associated with cocaine use produces a strong conditioned response characterised by autonomic hyperarousal and increases in subjective measures of cocaine craving. METHODS To evaluate the role of dopamine release by such cues, 20 cocaine-dependent(More)
To reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for genetic, clinical and translational studies, numerous factor analyses of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale checklist (YBOCS-CL) have been conducted. Results of these analyses have been inconsistent, likely as a consequence of small sample sizes and variable(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of emergency services personnel related to acute dissociative responses at the time of critical incident exposure, a phenomenon designated "peritraumatic dissociation." METHOD The authors studied 157 rescue workers who responded to the Nimitz Freeway collapse during the 1989 Loma Prieta(More)
The present study examined whether the active component in tobacco, nicotine, can modulate cocaine craving in patients with a history of smoking crack cocaine when exposed to crack cocaine related environmental cues. Twenty patients, all cigarette smokers, were randomly assigned to nicotine (two 22 mg transdermal patches) or placebo in a single-dose,(More)