Kevin L. Behar

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To determine the relationship between cerebral Glc metabolism and glutamatergic neuronal function, we used 13C NMR spectroscopy to measure, simultaneously, the rates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and Gln synthesis in the rat cortex in vivo. From these measurements, we calculated the rates of oxidative Glc metabolism and glutamate-neurotransmitter cycling(More)
Localized 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with J editing was used to measure the concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the occipital lobe of four control human volunteers and four epileptic volunteers who were receiving the drug vigabatrin. The GABA concentration measured in four nonepileptic subjects was 1.1 +/- 0.1 mumol/cm3 of brain,(More)
BACKGROUND Several lines of emerging evidence suggest that dysfunction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems is associated with major depression. However, investigation of this hypothesis is limited by difficulty obtaining noninvasive in vivo measures of brain GABA levels. In this study we used in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to(More)
Prior 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) experiments, which simultaneously measured in vivo rates of total glutamate-glutamine cycling (V(cyc(tot))) and neuronal glucose oxidation (CMR(glc(ox), N)), revealed a linear relationship between these fluxes above isoelectricity, with a slope of approximately 1. In vitro glial culture studies examining(More)
Growing evidence indicates that glia pathology and amino-acid neurotransmitter system abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology and possibly the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. This study investigates changes in glial function occurring in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) after chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a rodent model of(More)
Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely assumed to measure neuronal activity, but no satisfactory mechanism for this linkage has been identified. Here we derived the changes in the energetic component from the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal and related it to changes in the neuronal spiking frequency in the activated voxels. Extracellular(More)
Recent 13C NMR studies in rat models have shown that the glutamate/glutamine cycle is highly active in the cerebral cortex and is coupled to incremental glucose oxidation in an approximately 1:1 stoichiometry. To determine whether a high level of glutamatergic activity is present in human cortex, the rates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glutamine(More)
The predominant neuronal glutamate transporter, EAAC1 (for excitatory amino acid carrier-1), is localized to the dendrites and somata of many neurons. Rare presynaptic localization is restricted to GABA terminals. Because glutamate is a precursor for GABA synthesis, we hypothesized that EAAC1 may play a role in regulating GABA synthesis and, thus, could(More)
Increasing evidence supports a crucial role for glial metabolism in maintaining proper synaptic function and in the etiology of neurological disease. However, the study of glial metabolism in humans has been hampered by the lack of noninvasive methods. To specifically measure the contribution of astroglia to brain energy metabolism in humans, we used a(More)
To determine whether plasma lactate can be a significant fuel for human brain energy metabolism, infusions of [3-(13)C]lactate and (1)H-(13)C polarization transfer spectroscopy were used to detect the entry and utilization of lactate. During the 2 h infusion study, (13)C incorporation in the amino acid pools of glutamate and glutamine were measured with a 5(More)