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To determine the relationship between cerebral Glc metabolism and glutamatergic neuronal function, we used 13C NMR spectroscopy to measure, simultaneously, the rates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and Gln synthesis in the rat cortex in vivo. From these measurements, we calculated the rates of oxidative Glc metabolism and glutamate-neurotransmitter cycling(More)
Previous studies have shown that the glutamate/glutamine (Glu/Gln) neurotransmitter cycle and neuronal glucose oxidation are proportional (1:1), with increasing neuronal activity above isoelectricity. GABA, a product of Glu metabolism, is synthesized from astroglial Gln and contributes to total Glu/Gln neurotransmitter cycling, although the fraction(More)
Prior 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) experiments, which simultaneously measured in vivo rates of total glutamate-glutamine cycling (V(cyc(tot))) and neuronal glucose oxidation (CMR(glc(ox), N)), revealed a linear relationship between these fluxes above isoelectricity, with a slope of approximately 1. In vitro glial culture studies examining(More)
Localized 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with J editing was used to measure the concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the occipital lobe of four control human volunteers and four epileptic volunteers who were receiving the drug vigabatrin. The GABA concentration measured in four nonepileptic subjects was 1.1 +/- 0.1 mumol/cm3 of brain,(More)
To determine whether plasma lactate can be a significant fuel for human brain energy metabolism, infusions of [3-(13)C]lactate and (1)H-(13)C polarization transfer spectroscopy were used to detect the entry and utilization of lactate. During the 2 h infusion study, (13)C incorporation in the amino acid pools of glutamate and glutamine were measured with a 5(More)
The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to determine quantitatively the contribution of glutamate/glutamine cycling to total astrocyte/neuron substrate trafficking for the replenishment of neurotransmitter glutamate; and (ii) to determine the relative contributions of anaplerotic flux and glutamate/glutamine cycling to total glutamine synthesis. In this(More)
Increasing evidence supports a crucial role for glial metabolism in maintaining proper synaptic function and in the etiology of neurological disease. However, the study of glial metabolism in humans has been hampered by the lack of noninvasive methods. To specifically measure the contribution of astroglia to brain energy metabolism in humans, we used a(More)
NMR spectroscopy was used to test recent proposals that the additional energy required for brain activation is provided through nonoxidative glycolysis. Using localized NMR spectroscopic methods, the rate of C4-glutamate isotopic turnover from infused [1-(13)C]glucose was measured in the somatosensory cortex of rat brain both at rest and during forepaw(More)
Metabolic alterations in amino acids, high-energy phosphates, and intracellular pH during and after insulin hypoglycemia in the rat brain was studied in vivo by 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sequential accumulations of 1H and 31P spectra were obtained from a double-tuned surface coil positioned over the exposed skull of a rat(More)
Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely assumed to measure neuronal activity, but no satisfactory mechanism for this linkage has been identified. Here we derived the changes in the energetic component from the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal and related it to changes in the neuronal spiking frequency in the activated voxels. Extracellular(More)