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To determine the relationship between cerebral Glc metabolism and glutamatergic neuronal function, we used 13C NMR spectroscopy to measure, simultaneously, the rates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and Gln synthesis in the rat cortex in vivo. From these measurements, we calculated the rates of oxidative Glc metabolism and glutamate-neurotransmitter cycling(More)
Previous studies have shown that the glutamate/glutamine (Glu/Gln) neurotransmitter cycle and neuronal glucose oxidation are proportional (1:1), with increasing neuronal activity above isoelectricity. GABA, a product of Glu metabolism, is synthesized from astroglial Gln and contributes to total Glu/Gln neurotransmitter cycling, although the fraction(More)
Increasing evidence supports a crucial role for glial metabolism in maintaining proper synaptic function and in the etiology of neurological disease. However, the study of glial metabolism in humans has been hampered by the lack of noninvasive methods. To specifically measure the contribution of astroglia to brain energy metabolism in humans, we used a(More)
Prior 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) experiments, which simultaneously measured in vivo rates of total glutamate-glutamine cycling (V(cyc(tot))) and neuronal glucose oxidation (CMR(glc(ox), N)), revealed a linear relationship between these fluxes above isoelectricity, with a slope of approximately 1. In vitro glial culture studies examining(More)
Localized 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with J editing was used to measure the concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the occipital lobe of four control human volunteers and four epileptic volunteers who were receiving the drug vigabatrin. The GABA concentration measured in four nonepileptic subjects was 1.1 +/- 0.1 mumol/cm3 of brain,(More)
The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to determine quantitatively the contribution of glutamate/glutamine cycling to total astrocyte/neuron substrate trafficking for the replenishment of neurotransmitter glutamate; and (ii) to determine the relative contributions of anaplerotic flux and glutamate/glutamine cycling to total glutamine synthesis. In this(More)
NMR spectroscopy was used to test recent proposals that the additional energy required for brain activation is provided through nonoxidative glycolysis. Using localized NMR spectroscopic methods, the rate of C4-glutamate isotopic turnover from infused [1-(13)C]glucose was measured in the somatosensory cortex of rat brain both at rest and during forepaw(More)
To determine whether plasma lactate can be a significant fuel for human brain energy metabolism, infusions of [3-(13)C]lactate and (1)H-(13)C polarization transfer spectroscopy were used to detect the entry and utilization of lactate. During the 2 h infusion study, (13)C incorporation in the amino acid pools of glutamate and glutamine were measured with a 5(More)
Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) measurements of energy metabolism (i.e. cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption, CMR(O2)), blood circulation (i.e. cerebral blood flow, CBF, and volume, CBV), and functional MRI (fMRI) signal over a wide range of neuronal activity and pharmacological treatments are used to interpret(More)
Homocarnosine is a dipeptide of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and histidine found uniquely in the brain, most likely in a subclass of GABAergic neurons. By comparison of spectra from the occipital lobe of patients receiving a homocarnosine elevation drug to normal subjects we have assigned two elevated resonances in the short TE 1H MRS spectrum to(More)