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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging food- and waterborne pathogen that encodes two type III secretion systems (T3SSs). Previous studies have linked type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) to cytotoxicity and T3SS2 to intestinal fluid accumulation, but animal challenge models needed to study these phenomena are limited. In this study we evaluated the roles of(More)
The ability to rapidly screen a complex pathogen proteome for proteins that elicit recall T-lymphocyte responses from immune individuals would accelerate vaccine development. An outer membrane fraction of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale induces protective immunity against infection and disease in cattle. We have used this immunization model to(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is an important cause of food and waterborne illness in the developed countries. Cattle are a reservoir host of EHEC O157 and a major source of human exposure through contaminated meat products. Shiga toxins (Stxs) are an important pathogenicity trait of EHEC O157. The insertion sites of the(More)
The ABCB gene subfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters is responsible for transporting a wide spectrum of molecules including peptides, iron, bile salts, drugs, and phospholipids. In humans, ABCB4 appears to be exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of hepatocytes where it translocates phosphatidylcholine from the inner to the outer(More)
Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) of the bovine rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale is an abundant, serologically immunodominant outer membrane protein. Immunodominance partially results from numerous CD4+ T cell epitopes in highly conserved amino and carboxy regions and the central hypervariable region of MSP2. However, in long-term cultures of(More)
BACKGROUND Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma(More)
CASE DESCRIPTION 6 healthy dogs given human albumin solution as part of a study were examined following development of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction (1 dog) and signs suggestive of a type III hypersensitivity reaction (all 6 dogs). CLINICAL FINDINGS All 6 dogs were healthy prior to administration of human albumin solution. One dog developed signs(More)
An ileal cannulation model was developed in conjunction with a flow cytometric assay to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of immunopathogenesis of Johne's disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Initial studies with calves showed that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA is detectable by PCR in ileal biopsies during the(More)
The functions of gammadelta T cells are enigmatic, and these cells are often considered as evolutionary remnants of well-characterized alphabeta T cells. However, their conservation throughout evolution suggests that gammadelta T cells are biologically unique. In ruminants, gammadelta T cells expressing the workshop cluster 1 (WC1) scavenger receptor(More)