Kevin Jeffrey Barnham

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Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Oxygen is vital for life but is also potentially dangerous, and a complex system of checks and balances exists for utilizing this essential element. Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance in pro-oxidant/antioxidant(More)
Inhibition of neocortical beta-amyloid (Abeta) accumulation may be essential in an effective therapeutic intervention for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cu and Zn are enriched in Abeta deposits in AD, which are solubilized by Cu/Zn-selective chelators in vitro. Here we report a 49% decrease in brain Abeta deposition (-375 microg/g wet weight, p = 0.0001) in a(More)
Amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is the major constituent of extracellular plaques and perivascular amyloid deposits, the pathognomonic neuropathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease. Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) bind Abeta, inducing aggregation and giving rise to reactive oxygen species. These reactions may play a deleterious role in the disease state, because high(More)
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is complicated by pro-oxidant intraneuronal Fe(2+) elevation as well as extracellular Zn(2+) accumulation within amyloid plaque. We found that the AD β-amyloid protein precursor (APP) possesses ferroxidase activity mediated by a conserved H-ferritin-like active site, which is inhibited specifically by Zn(2+). Like ceruloplasmin, APP(More)
As a disease-modifying approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD), clioquinol (CQ) targets beta-amyloid (Abeta) reactions with synaptic Zn and Cu yet promotes metal uptake. Here we characterize the second-generation 8-hydroxy quinoline analog PBT2, which also targets metal-induced aggregation of Abeta, but is more effective as a Zn/Cu ionophore and has greater(More)
There is a growing body of evidence to support a role for oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with increased levels of lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation products (HNE, 8-HO-guanidine and protein carbonyls respectively) in AD brains. The brain is a highly oxidative organ consuming 20% of the body's oxygen despite accounting for only 2%(More)
There has been steadily growing interest in the participation of metal ions (especially, zinc, copper, and iron) in neurobiological processes, such as the regulation of synaptic transmission. Recent descriptions of the release of zinc and copper in the cortical glutamatergic synapse, and influencing the response of the NMDA receptor underscore the relevance(More)
In studies of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis there is an increasing focus on mechanisms of intracellular amyloid-beta (Abeta) generation and toxicity. Here we investigated the inhibitory potential of the 42 amino acid Abeta peptide (Abeta1-42) on activity of electron transport chain enzyme complexes in human mitochondria. We found that synthetic Abeta1-42(More)
The abnormal form of the prion protein (PrP) is believed to be responsible for the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. A peptide encompassing residues 106-126 of human PrP (PrP106-126) is neurotoxic in vitro due its adoption of an amyloidogenic fibril structure. The Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) also undergoes fibrillogenesis to(More)
Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is pivotal to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Here we report the formation of a toxic Abeta-Cu2+ complex formed via a histidine-bridged dimer, as observed at Cu2+/peptide ratios of >0.6:1 by EPR spectroscopy. The toxicity of the Abeta-Cu2+ complex to cultured primary cortical neurons was attenuated when either the pi -or(More)