Kevin J. Otto

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Current neuroprosthetic systems based on electro-physiological recording have an extended, yet finite working lifetime. Some posited lifetime-extension solutions involve improving device biocompatibility or suppressing host immune responses. Our objective was to test an alternative solution comprised of applying a voltage pulse to a microelectrode site,(More)
Reactive tissue encapsulation of chronically implanted microelectrode probes can preclude long-term recording of extracellular action potentials. We investigated an intervention strategy for functionally encapsulated microelectrode sites. This method, known as "rejuvenation," involved applying a +1.5 V dc bias to an iridium site for 4 s. Previous studies(More)
The ability to control a prosthetic device directly from the neocortex has been demonstrated in rats, monkeys and humans. Here we investigate whether neural control can be accomplished in situations where (1) subjects have not received prior motor training to control the device (naive user) and (2) the neural encoding of movement parameters in the cortex is(More)
Sensory cortical prostheses have potential to aid people suffering from blindness, deafness and other sensory deficits. However, research to date has shown that sensation thresholds via epicortical stimulation are surprisingly large. These thresholds result in potentially deleterious electrical currents, as well as large activation volumes. Large activation(More)
A combination of electrophysiological mapping, behavioral analysis and cortical micro-stimulation was used to explore the interrelation between the auditory cortex and behavior in the adult rat. Auditory discriminations were evaluated in eight rats trained to discriminate the presence or absence of a 75 dB pure tone stimulus. A probe trial technique was(More)
Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), which has shown promise in the visual, auditory and somatosensory systems as a platform for sensory prostheses, typically relies on charged balanced, symmetric, biphasic stimulation. However, neural stimulation models as well as experiments conducted in cochlear implant users have suggested that charge balanced(More)
Implantable intracortical microelectrodes face an uphill struggle for widespread clinical use. Their potential for treating a wide range of traumatic and degenerative neural disease is hampered by their unreliability in chronic settings. A major factor in this decline in chronic performance is a reactive response of brain tissue, which aims to isolate the(More)
Electrical activation of the auditory cortex has been shown to elicit an auditory sensation; however, the perceptual effects of auditory cortical microstimulation delivered through penetrating microelectrodes have not been clearly elucidated. This study examines the relationship between electrical microstimulus location within the adult rat auditory cortex(More)
Advanced fabrication techniques have now made it possible to produce microelectrode arrays for recording the electrical activity of a large number of neurons in the intact brain for both clinical and basic science applications. However, the long-term recording performance desired for these applications is hindered by a number of factors that lead to device(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain-implanted microelectrode arrays show promise as future clinical devices. However, biological responses to various designs, compositions and locations of these implants have not been fully characterized, and may impact the long-term functionality of these devices. In order to improve our understanding of the tissue conditions at the interface(More)