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The robo gene in Drosophila was identified in a large-scale mutant screen for genes that control the decision by axons to cross the CNS midline. In robo mutants, too many axons cross and recross the midline. Here we show that robo encodes an axon guidance receptor that defines a novel subfamily of immunoglobulin superfamily proteins that is highly conserved(More)
The molecular mechanisms controlling the ability of motor axons to recognize their appropriate muscle targets were dissected using Drosophila genetics to add or subtract Netrin A, Netrin B, Semaphorin II, and Fasciclin II alone or in combination. Fas II and Sema II are expressed by all muscles where they promote (Fas II) or inhibit (Sema II) promiscuous(More)
The search to understand the mechanisms regulating brain wiring has relied on biochemical purification approaches in vertebrates and genetic approaches in invertebrates to identify molecular cues and receptors for axon guidance. Here we describe a phenotype-based gene-trap screen in mice designed for the large-scale identification of genes controlling the(More)
Two tandem Netrin genes in Drosophila are expressed at the midline of the developing CNS and in different subsets of neurons, muscles, and epidermal patches. In embryos carrying a small deficiency that deletes both genes, CNS axon commissures are partially missing or thinner. This phenotype is rescued by expressing either Netrin gene at the midline.(More)
The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individual differences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in the(More)
In developing neurons, somal migration and initiation of axon outgrowth often occur simultaneously and are regulated in part by similar classes of molecules. When neurons reach their final destinations, however, somal translocation and axon extension are uncoupled. Insights into the mechanisms underlying this process of disengagement came from our study of(More)
Hippocampal mossy fibers project preferentially to the stratum lucidum, the proximal-most lamina of the suprapyramidal region of CA3. The molecular mechanisms that govern this lamina-restricted projection are still unknown. We examined the projection pattern of mossy fibers in mutant mice for semaphorin receptors plexin-A2 and plexin-A4, and their ligand,(More)
Synesthesia is a condition where stimulation of a single sensory modality or processing stream elicits an idiosyncratic, yet reliable perception in one or more other modalities or streams. Various models have been proposed to explain synesthesia, which have in common aberrant cross-activation of one cortical area by another. This has been observed directly(More)
The trajectory of corticospinal tract (CST) axons from cortex to spinal cord involves a succession of choice points, each of which is controlled by multiple guidance molecules. To assess the involvement of transmembrane semaphorins and their plexin receptors in the guidance of CST axons, we have examined this tract in mutants of Semaphorin-6A (Sema6A),(More)
Synaesthesia is a heritable condition of involuntary sensory cross-activation whereby the presentation of a particular stimulus elicits a secondary sensory-perceptual experience. It is thought to be caused by aberrant cross-activation of one cortical area by another, but models differ as to whether this reflects functional or structural differences in the(More)