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OBJECTIVES To formally establish the relationship between oxycodone dissolution, in vitro, from a prolonged-release, oral, combination of oxycodone and naloxone (OXN PR) tablets with in vivo absorption, by developing a validated Level A in vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC) and subsequently ascertaining the temporal absorption of oxycodone during(More)
Ribozymes are RNAs that can be designed to catalyze the specific cleavage or ligation of target RNAs. We have explored the possibility of using ribozymes in maize to downregulate the expression of the stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (Delta9) desaturase gene. Based on site accessibility and catalytic activity, several ribozyme constructs were designed and(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia and strabismus in children aged up to 4-5 years, also identifying the major areas of uncertainty and so inform future research priorities in this disease area. DATA SOURCES Major electronic databases were searched in January 2006. REVIEW METHODS Systematic literature reviews were(More)
Opioid analgesics are the cornerstone of pain management for moderate-to-severe cancer pain and, increasingly, chronic noncancer pain. Despite proven analgesic efficacy, the use of opioids is commonly associated with frequently dose-limiting constipation that seriously impacts on patients' quality of life. Agents currently used to manage opioid-induced(More)
Recent experience has prompted the US FDA to consider whether ethanol ingestion may modify the release characteristics of prolonged-release formulations, where dose dumping may be an issue for patient safety. The influence of ethanol on the in vitro release of opioid drugs from some prolonged-release formulations utilizing different release technologies was(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the absolute bioavailability of naloxone from oral doses ranging from 5 mg to 120 mg. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this open-label study, 28 healthy subjects received naloxone 1 mg (0.4 mg/ml) as an intravenous infusion (reference treatment), and the following oral doses as prolonged release (PR) naloxone tablets: 5 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, 80(More)
OBJECTIVES This exploratory study in healthy volunteers investigated the effect of single doses of oxycodone on gastrointestinal (GI) transit time and the degree to which a single dose of naloxone reverses the oxycodone-induced effect. METHODS Fifteen healthy male volunteers received: oxycodone 10 and2 0 mg, oxycodone/naloxone 10/5 and 20/10 mg (all as(More)
BACKGROUND There is an increasing body of evidence supporting the need for prophylactic management of the adverse events (AEs) associated with long-term opioid use in patients with chronic pain. Symptoms of bowel dysfunction, such as constipation, may have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life and willingness to continue opioid therapy, and(More)
BACKGROUND Anal cancer is uncommon and predominantly a disease of the elderly. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated as a causal agent, and HPV infection is usually transmitted sexually. Individuals who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive are particularly vulnerable to HPV infections, and increasing numbers from this population(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by developing a decision analytic model that incorporated and assessed all of the National Screening Committee criteria. A further objective was to identify the major areas of uncertainty in the model, and so inform future research priorities in this(More)