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Previous explanations for the allograft reaction have been based on the concept that antigen causes immunocyte activation, following engagement of the immunocyte's specific receptor. This notion lead to the concept of immune surveillance, the idea that the evolutionary pressure responsible for the development of the vertebrate immune system involved in(More)
Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades-that is the extent(More)
Allogeneic reactions have conventionally been considered as typical immune responses by one population of cells to antigens present on the other. This view is inadequate, since it does not explain many features of these reactions, among which are: (1) reactivity is much higher between different strains within a species than between species, in spite of the(More)
The study of autoimmune disease in the context of T-helper type 1 (Th1) and T-helper type 2 (Th2) CD4+ T-cell responses demonstrates that the relative contribution of either T-cell type to the development of a particular autoimmune response can influence whether or not this response leads to clinical disease. Moreover, this influence can be quite different(More)
Pancreatic islets from BALB/c (H-2d) mice are rejected within 14 days of transplantation to the kidney capsule of allogeneic, CBA/H (H-2k) recipients. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment of the islet donor reduced the intensity of the allograft response, and these islets undergo a more chronic rejection process. Islets from cyclophosphamide-pretreated donors can(More)
Proislets, derived from fetal mouse pancreata by collagenase digestion and subsequent organ culture, can be frozen to -196 degrees C and stored in a viable condition before successful syngeneic transplantation. Cryopreserved proislets are relatively undifferentiated morphologically, but continue to differentiate into mature islets after transplantation.
Islets of Langerhans cultured 7 days in vitro no longer contained any capillary endothelial cells, but their endocrine cells remained ultrastructurally normal up to 14 days. Vascular endothelial cells were also lost from cultured thyroid lobes, but more slowly. Thyroid endothelium was readily identified after 7 days of culture, although many cells appeared(More)