Kevin J. Kunstman

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences that pre-date the recognition of AIDS are critical to defining the time of origin and the timescale of virus evolution. A viral sequence from 1959 (ZR59) is the oldest known HIV-1 infection. Other historically documented sequences, important calibration points to convert evolutionary distance into time,(More)
A 32-nucleotide deletion (delta 32) within the beta-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene has been described in subjects who remain uninfected despite extensive exposure to HIV-1. This allele was found to be common in the Caucasian population with a frequency of 0.0808, but was not found in people of African or Asian ancestry. To determine its role in HIV-1(More)
The viral determinants that underlie human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neurotropism are unknown, due in part to limited studies on viruses isolated from brain. Previous studies suggest that brain-derived viruses are macrophage tropic (M-tropic) and principally use CCR5 for virus entry. To better understand HIV-1 neurotropism, we isolated primary(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections are characterized by early peaks of viraemia that decline as strong cellular immune responses develop. Although it has been shown that virus-specific CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) exert selective pressure during HIV and SIV infection, the data have been(More)
Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are(More)
HIV infection is associated with the progressive loss of CD4(+) T cells through their destruction or decreased production. A central, yet unresolved issue of HIV disease is the mechanism for this loss, and in particular whether HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells are preferentially affected. Here we show that HIV-specific memory CD4(+) T cells in infected(More)
HIV infects tissue macrophages and brain microglia, which express lower levels of CD4 and CCR5 than CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. Mechanisms that enhance HIV tropism for macrophages in the CNS and other tissues are not well understood. Here, we identify an HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) variant in the CD4-binding site of gp120, Asn 283 (N283), that is(More)
Multiple human immunodeficiency virus type-1 sequences from the V3 and V4-V5 regions of the envelope gene were analyzed from three mother-infant pairs. The infants' viral sequences were less diverse than those of their mothers. In two pairs, a proviral form infrequently found in the mother predominated in her infant. A conserved N-linked glycosylation site(More)
The rate of progression to disease varies considerably among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). Analyses of semiannual blood samples obtained from six infected men showed that a rapid rate of CD4 T cell loss was associated with relative evolutionary stasis of the HIV-1 quasispecies virus population. More moderate rates of(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences were generated from blood and from brain tissue obtained by stereotactic biopsy from six patients undergoing a diagnostic neurosurgical procedure. Proviral DNA was directly amplified by nested PCR, and 8 to 36 clones from each sample were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of intrapatient envelope V3-V5(More)