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The viral determinants that underlie human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neurotropism are unknown, due in part to limited studies on viruses isolated from brain. Previous studies suggest that brain-derived viruses are macrophage tropic (M-tropic) and principally use CCR5 for virus entry. To better understand HIV-1 neurotropism, we isolated primary(More)
A 32-nucleotide deletion (delta 32) within the beta-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene has been described in subjects who remain uninfected despite extensive exposure to HIV-1. This allele was found to be common in the Caucasian population with a frequency of 0.0808, but was not found in people of African or Asian ancestry. To determine its role in HIV-1(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences were generated from blood and from brain tissue obtained by stereotactic biopsy from six patients undergoing a diagnostic neurosurgical procedure. Proviral DNA was directly amplified by nested PCR, and 8 to 36 clones from each sample were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of intrapatient envelope V3-V5(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections are characterized by early peaks of viraemia that decline as strong cellular immune responses develop. Although it has been shown that virus-specific CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) exert selective pressure during HIV and SIV infection, the data have been(More)
The rate of progression to disease varies considerably among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). Analyses of semiannual blood samples obtained from six infected men showed that a rapid rate of CD4 T cell loss was associated with relative evolutionary stasis of the HIV-1 quasispecies virus population. More moderate rates of(More)
Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruses in the brain use CCR5 as the principal coreceptor for entry into a cell. However, additional phenotypic characteristics are necessary for HIV-1 neurotropism. Furthermore, neurotropic strains are not necessarily neurovirulent. To better understand the determinants of HIV-1 neurovirulence, we isolated(More)
HIV infection is associated with the progressive loss of CD4(+) T cells through their destruction or decreased production. A central, yet unresolved issue of HIV disease is the mechanism for this loss, and in particular whether HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells are preferentially affected. Here we show that HIV-specific memory CD4(+) T cells in infected(More)
Human APOBEC3 enzymes are cellular DNA cytidine deaminases that inhibit and/or mutate a variety of retroviruses, retrotransposons, and DNA viruses. Here, we report a detailed examination of human APOBEC3 gene expression, focusing on APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F), which are potent inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection but(More)
HIV infects macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). Mechanisms that enhance HIV macrophage/microglial tropism are not well understood. Here, we identify an HIV Env variant in the V4 region of gp120, Asp 386 (D386), that eliminates an N-linked glycosylation site at position 386, enhances viral replication in macrophages, and is present(More)
BACKGROUND Detection of HIV-1 in patients is limited by the sensitivity and selectivity of available tests. The nanotechnology-based bio-barcode-amplification method offers an innovative approach to detect specific HIV-1 antigens from diverse HIV-1 subtypes. We evaluated the efficacy of this protein-detection method in detecting HIV-1 in men enrolled in the(More)