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Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are(More)
HIV infection is associated with the progressive loss of CD4(+) T cells through their destruction or decreased production. A central, yet unresolved issue of HIV disease is the mechanism for this loss, and in particular whether HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells are preferentially affected. Here we show that HIV-specific memory CD4(+) T cells in infected(More)
The highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules help to determine the specificity and repertoire of the immune response. The great diversity of these antigen-binding molecules confers differential advantages in responding to pathogens, but presents a major obstacle to distinguishing HLA allele-specific effects. HLA class I supertypes(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fuses with cells after sequential interactions between its envelope glycoproteins, CD4 and a coreceptor, usually CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). CMPD 167 is a CCR5-specific small molecule with potent antiviral activity in vitro. We show that CMPD 167 caused a rapid and substantial(More)
Entry of HIV-1 into a cell happens only after viral envelope glycoproteins have bound to CD4 and a chemokine receptor. Generally, macrophage-tropic strains use CCR5, and T cell-line-tropic strains use CXCR4 as coreceptors for virus entry. Dual-tropic viruses can use both CCR5 and CXCR4. About 1% of white people are homozygous for a non-functional CCR5(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences that pre-date the recognition of AIDS are critical to defining the time of origin and the timescale of virus evolution. A viral sequence from 1959 (ZR59) is the oldest known HIV-1 infection. Other historically documented sequences, important calibration points to convert evolutionary distance into time,(More)
BACKGROUND MHC class I proteins are partly responsible for shaping the magnitude and focus of the adaptive cellular immune response. In humans, conventional wisdom suggests that the HLA-A, -B, and -C alleles are equally expressed on the majority of cell types. While we currently have a thorough understanding of how total MHC class I expression varies in(More)
A chemokine receptor from the seven-transmembrane-domain G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily is an essential coreceptor for the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains. To investigate nonhuman primate CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) homologue structure and function, we amplified CCR5(More)
Here we report a real-time PCR-based method for determining the surface coverage of dithiol-capped oligonucleotides bound onto gold nanoparticles alone and in tandem with antibody. The detection of gold nanoparticle-bound DNA is accomplished by targeting the oligonucleotide with primer and probe binding sites, amplification of the oligonucleotide by PCR,(More)
Maraviroc (MVC) gels are effective at protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal SHIV transmission, but breakthrough infections can occur. To determine the effects of a vaginal MVC gel on infecting SHIV populations in a macaque model, we analyzed plasma samples from three rhesus macaques that received a MVC vaginal gel (day 0) but became infected after(More)