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HIV infection is associated with the progressive loss of CD4(+) T cells through their destruction or decreased production. A central, yet unresolved issue of HIV disease is the mechanism for this loss, and in particular whether HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells are preferentially affected. Here we show that HIV-specific memory CD4(+) T cells in infected(More)
Entry of HIV-1 into a cell happens only after viral envelope glycoproteins have bound to CD4 and a chemokine receptor. Generally, macrophage-tropic strains use CCR5, and T cell-line-tropic strains use CXCR4 as coreceptors for virus entry. Dual-tropic viruses can use both CCR5 and CXCR4. About 1% of white people are homozygous for a non-functional CCR5(More)
Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are(More)
The highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules help to determine the specificity and repertoire of the immune response. The great diversity of these antigen-binding molecules confers differential advantages in responding to pathogens, but presents a major obstacle to distinguishing HLA allele-specific effects. HLA class I supertypes(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fuses with cells after sequential interactions between its envelope glycoproteins, CD4 and a coreceptor, usually CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). CMPD 167 is a CCR5-specific small molecule with potent antiviral activity in vitro. We show that CMPD 167 caused a rapid and substantial(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences that pre-date the recognition of AIDS are critical to defining the time of origin and the timescale of virus evolution. A viral sequence from 1959 (ZR59) is the oldest known HIV-1 infection. Other historically documented sequences, important calibration points to convert evolutionary distance into time,(More)
BACKGROUND MHC class I proteins are partly responsible for shaping the magnitude and focus of the adaptive cellular immune response. In humans, conventional wisdom suggests that the HLA-A, -B, and -C alleles are equally expressed on the majority of cell types. While we currently have a thorough understanding of how total MHC class I expression varies in(More)
A chemokine receptor from the seven-transmembrane-domain G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily is an essential coreceptor for the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains. To investigate nonhuman primate CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) homologue structure and function, we amplified CCR5(More)
Maraviroc (MVC) gels are effective at protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal SHIV transmission, but breakthrough infections can occur. To determine the effects of a vaginal MVC gel on infecting SHIV populations in a macaque model, we analyzed plasma samples from three rhesus macaques that received a MVC vaginal gel (day 0) but became infected after(More)
Here we report a real-time PCR-based method for determining the surface coverage of dithiol-capped oligonucleotides bound onto gold nanoparticles alone and in tandem with antibody. The detection of gold nanoparticle-bound DNA is accomplished by targeting the oligonucleotide with primer and probe binding sites, amplification of the oligonucleotide by PCR,(More)