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A 32-nucleotide deletion (delta 32) within the beta-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene has been described in subjects who remain uninfected despite extensive exposure to HIV-1. This allele was found to be common in the Caucasian population with a frequency of 0.0808, but was not found in people of African or Asian ancestry. To determine its role in HIV-1(More)
The viral determinants that underlie human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neurotropism are unknown, due in part to limited studies on viruses isolated from brain. Previous studies suggest that brain-derived viruses are macrophage tropic (M-tropic) and principally use CCR5 for virus entry. To better understand HIV-1 neurotropism, we isolated primary(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences were generated from blood and from brain tissue obtained by stereotactic biopsy from six patients undergoing a diagnostic neurosurgical procedure. Proviral DNA was directly amplified by nested PCR, and 8 to 36 clones from each sample were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of intrapatient envelope V3-V5(More)
The rate of progression to disease varies considerably among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). Analyses of semiannual blood samples obtained from six infected men showed that a rapid rate of CD4 T cell loss was associated with relative evolutionary stasis of the HIV-1 quasispecies virus population. More moderate rates of(More)
Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections are characterized by early peaks of viraemia that decline as strong cellular immune responses develop. Although it has been shown that virus-specific CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) exert selective pressure during HIV and SIV infection, the data have been(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences that pre-date the recognition of AIDS are critical to defining the time of origin and the timescale of virus evolution. A viral sequence from 1959 (ZR59) is the oldest known HIV-1 infection. Other historically documented sequences, important calibration points to convert evolutionary distance into time,(More)
Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruses in the brain use CCR5 as the principal coreceptor for entry into a cell. However, additional phenotypic characteristics are necessary for HIV-1 neurotropism. Furthermore, neurotropic strains are not necessarily neurovirulent. To better understand the determinants of HIV-1 neurovirulence, we isolated(More)
HIV infects macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS), which express lower levels of CD4 than CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. To investigate mechanisms of HIV neurotropism, full-length env genes were cloned from autopsy brain and lymphoid tissues from 4 AIDS patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Characterization of 55 functional(More)
HIV infection is associated with the progressive loss of CD4(+) T cells through their destruction or decreased production. A central, yet unresolved issue of HIV disease is the mechanism for this loss, and in particular whether HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells are preferentially affected. Here we show that HIV-specific memory CD4(+) T cells in infected(More)