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Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have the potential to nucleate cavitation and promote both beneficial and deleterious bioeffects in vivo. Previous studies have elucidated the pulse-duration-dependent pressure amplitude threshold for rapid loss of echogenicity due to UCA fragmentation. Previous studies have demonstrated that UCA fragmentation was(More)
Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) shows promise for spatially and temporally targeted tissue occlusion. In this study, substantial tissue occlusion was achieved in operatively exposed and transcutaneous canine kidneys by generating ADV gas bubbles in the renal arteries or segmental arteries. Fifteen canines were anesthetized, among which 10 underwent(More)
The vaporization of a superheated droplet emulsion into gas bubbles using ultrasound--termed acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV)--has potential therapeutic applications in embolotherapy and drug delivery. The optimization of ADV for therapeutic applications can be enhanced by understanding the physical mechanisms underlying ADV, which are currently not(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) shows promise for spatial control and acceleration of thermal lesion production. The investigators hypothesized that microbubbles generated by ADV could enhance high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation by controlling and increasing local energy absorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
Ultrasound-mediated delivery systems have mainly focused on microbubble contrast agents as carriers of drugs or genetic material. This study uses micron-sized, perfluoropentane (PFP) emulsions as carriers of chlorambucil (CHL), a lipophilic chemotherapeutic. The release of CHL is achieved via acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), whereby the superheated(More)
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are used clinically to aid detection and diagnosis of abnormal blood flow or perfusion. Characterization of UCAs can aid in the optimization of ultrasound parameters for enhanced image contrast. In this study echogenic liposomes (ELIPs) were characterized acoustically by measuring the frequency-dependent attenuation and(More)
We report on the first experiments demonstrating the transcranial acoustic formation of stable gas bubbles that can be used for transcranial ultrasound aberration correction. It is demonstrated that the gas bubbles can be formed transcranially by phase-transitioning single, superheated, micron-size, liquid dodecafluoropentane droplets with ultrasound, a(More)
The aim of this study was to characterize the frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation of three phospholipid-shelled ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs): Definity, MicroMarker and echogenic liposomes. A broadband through-transmission technique allowed for measurement over 2 to 25 MHz with a single pair of transducers. Viscoelastic shell parameters of the UCAs(More)
Ultrasound is known to enhance recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis. In this study, occlusive porcine whole blood clots were placed in flowing plasma within living porcine carotid arteries. Ultrasonically induced stable cavitation was investigated as an adjuvant to rt-PA thrombolysis. Aged, retracted clots were exposed to plasma(More)
Previously, passive cavitation imaging has been described in the context of continuous-wave high-intensity focused ultrasound thermal ablation. However, the technique has potential use as a feedback mechanism for pulsed-wave therapies, such as ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. In this paper, results of experiments and simulations are reported to(More)