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BACKGROUND Compulsivity is a hallmark of drug addiction and in animal models is measured by consecutive incorrect responses to a previously rewarded stimulus during reversal learning. The aim of this study was to measure behavioral and neural markers of compulsivity in stimulant-dependent individuals and to test whether these markers could be modulated by(More)
CONTEXT There are no effective pharmacotherapies for stimulant dependence but there are many plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics. We hypothesized that dopamine-related targets are relevant for treatment of stimulant dependence, and there will likely be individual differences in response to dopaminergic challenges. OBJECTIVE To measure(More)
There are reasons for thinking that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and drug dependence, although conventionally distinct diagnostic categories, might share important cognitive and neurobiological substrates. We tested this hypothesis directly by comparing brain functional connectivity measures between patients with OCD, stimulant dependent individuals(More)
A number of compounds aimed at improving cognition in schizophrenia have failed to demonstrate efficacy in Phase 2 clinical trials. Translational studies using biomarkers in surrogate populations, such as schizotypy, could be used to assess the efficacy of novel compounds. In this study, we aimed to validate the sensitivity and inter-site reliability of(More)
RATIONALE Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) demonstrate impaired cognition in some selected domains. Although serotoninergic dysfunction has been implicated in OCD, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may play a role as well. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to evaluate learning and working memory in OCD and to determine the effects(More)
The increasing demand to develop more efficient compounds to treat cognitive impairments in schizophrenia has led to the development of experimental model systems. One such model system combines the study of surrogate populations expressing high levels of schizotypy with oculomotor biomarkers. We aimed (1) to replicate oculomotor deficits in a psychometric(More)
The boundaries between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other neuropsychiatric disorders remain unresolved and may well differ from one disorder to another. Endophenotypes are heritable, quantitative traits hypothesized to more closely represent genetic risk for complex polygenic mental disorders than overt symptoms and behaviors. They may have a(More)
Irritability is an important symptom in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. It is a major source of distress to patients and their carers and can lead to social and family dysfunction. Despite this, there has been little systematic research on irritability in psychiatry. The development of an instrument that captures the various components of(More)
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