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BACKGROUND Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) licensed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has been shown to improve response inhibition in animals, healthy volunteers, and adult patients. However, the mechanisms by which atomoxetine improves inhibitory control have yet to be determined. (More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors associated with underlying dysregulation of frontostriatal circuitry. Central to neurobiological models of OCD is the orbitofrontal cortex, a neural region that facilitates behavioral flexibility after negative feedback (reversal learning). We identified abnormally(More)
BACKGROUND Compulsivity is a hallmark of drug addiction and in animal models is measured by consecutive incorrect responses to a previously rewarded stimulus during reversal learning. The aim of this study was to measure behavioral and neural markers of compulsivity in stimulant-dependent individuals and to test whether these markers could be modulated by(More)
BACKGROUND Trichotillomania (repetitive hair-pulling) is an Axis I psychiatric disorder whose neurobiological basis is incompletely understood. Whole-brain trichotillomania neuroimaging studies are lacking. AIMS To investigate grey and white matter abnormalities over the whole brain in patients with trichotillomania. METHOD Eighteen patients with DSM-IV(More)
CONTEXT There are no effective pharmacotherapies for stimulant dependence but there are many plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics. We hypothesized that dopamine-related targets are relevant for treatment of stimulant dependence, and there will likely be individual differences in response to dopaminergic challenges. OBJECTIVE To measure(More)
The boundaries between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other neuropsychiatric disorders remain unresolved and may well differ from one disorder to another. Endophenotypes are heritable, quantitative traits hypothesized to more closely represent genetic risk for complex polygenic mental disorders than overt symptoms and behaviors. They may have a(More)
A number of compounds aimed at improving cognition in schizophrenia have failed to demonstrate efficacy in Phase 2 clinical trials. Translational studies using biomarkers in surrogate populations, such as schizotypy, could be used to assess the efficacy of novel compounds. In this study, we aimed to validate the sensitivity and inter-site reliability of(More)
CONTEXT Trichotillomania is an Axis I disorder characterized by repetitive, pathological hair pulling. OBJECTIVE To assess the integrity of white matter tracts in subjects with the disorder. DESIGN Between-group comparison using permutation cluster analysis, with stringent correction for multiple comparisons. SETTING Academic psychiatry department. (More)
There are reasons for thinking that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and drug dependence, although conventionally distinct diagnostic categories, might share important cognitive and neurobiological substrates. We tested this hypothesis directly by comparing brain functional connectivity measures between patients with OCD, stimulant dependent individuals(More)
The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine leads to transient psychosis-like symptoms and impairments in oculomotor performance in healthy volunteers. This study examined whether the adverse effects of ketamine on oculomotor performance can be reversed by the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. In this randomized double-blind,(More)