Kevin J Black

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Dopamine can induce fascinating, complex human behavioral states, including disinhibition, euphoria, or elaborate stereotypies, whereas dopamine deficiency can cause anxiety or sadness. Limited data suggest that these phenomena may involve dysfunction of orbital frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, or ventral striatum. The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) has an(More)
The pathophysiology of dystonia is unclear, but several clues implicate striatal dopamine dysfunction. In contrast, the causal relationship between striatal dopamine deficiency and parkinsonism is well defined. We now suggest that parkinsonism or dystonia may occur following striatal dopamine deficiency. Baboons treated with intracarotid(More)
Coregistration of functional brain images across many subjects offers several experimental advantages and is widely used for studies in humans. Voxel-based coregistration methods require a high-quality 3-D template image, preferably one that corresponds to a published atlas. Template images are available for human, but we could not find an appropriate(More)
Dopamine has been hypothesized to modulate response inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the effects of the dopamine prodrug levodopa on the brain responses to a well-validated response inhibition task (go/no-go, or GNG). Since abnormalities of response inhibition and dopamine have been thought(More)
Neuroimaging studies are increasingly performed in macaque species, including the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina). At times experimental questions can be answered by analysis of functional images in individual subjects and reference to a structural image in that subject. However, coregistration of functional brain images across many subjects offers(More)
In this study we have investigated the pathophysiology of two idiopathic focal dystonias: hand cramp with excessive cocontractions of agonist and antagonist hand or forearm muscles during specific tasks, such as writing, and facial dystonia manifested by involuntary eyelid spasms (blepharospasm) and lower facial and jaw spasms (oromandibular dystonia). We(More)
Levodopa has several advantages as a pharmacological challenge agent for human neuroscience research. Exogenous levodopa changes striatal neuronal activity and increases extracellular dopamine concentrations, and with adequate inhibition of peripheral metabolism levodopa does not change mean cerebral blood flow. For neuroimaging studies of Parkinson disease(More)
A dopaminergic excess has been commonly postulated in the pathophysiology of tics, and an early report described acute worsening of tics with levodopa. However, dopamine agonists sometimes improve tics. We undertook this pilot study to determine whether people with tics could tolerate an acute dose of levodopa. Six adults with Tourette syndrome (TS) who had(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients with blepharospasm have abnormal sensorimotor processing similar to patients with writer's cramp. BACKGROUND Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia manifest by involuntary, excessive blinking and squeezing of the eyes. Altered sensorimotor processing may contribute to the development of dystonic movements. Previously the(More)
Adenosine A(2a) receptor antagonists reduce symptom severity in Parkinson disease (PD) and animal models. Rodent studies support the hypothesis that A(2a) antagonists produce this benefit by reducing the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. One way to test this hypothesis in humans is to quantify regional pharmacodynamic responses with(More)