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Phototropins are light-activated kinases important for plant responses to blue light. Light initiates signaling in these proteins by generating a covalent protein-flavin mononucleotide (FMN) adduct within sensory Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains. We characterized the light-dependent changes of a phototropin PAS domain by solution nuclear magnetic resonance(More)
Optogenetic gene expression systems can control transcription with spatial and temporal detail unequaled with traditional inducible promoter systems. However, current eukaryotic light-gated transcription systems are limited by toxicity, dynamic range or slow activation and deactivation. Here we present an optogenetic gene expression system that addresses(More)
The products of the p53 and CBP/p300 genes have been individually implicated in control of cell growth and regulation of transcription. p53 is known to act as a positive and negative regulator of gene expression. Here we show that p53, in both wild-type and mutant conformation, forms a specific protein complex with p300. However, in its wild-type but not(More)
Members of the RegIII family of intestinal C-type lectins are directly antibacterial proteins that play a vital role in maintaining host-bacterial homeostasis in the mammalian gut, yet little is known about the mechanisms that regulate their biological activity. Here we show that the antibacterial activities of mouse RegIIIgamma and its human ortholog,(More)
Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems deliver effectors into host cells to manipulate cellular processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Many host targets of these effectors are found on membranes. Therefore, to identify their targets, effectors often use specialized membrane-localization domains to localize to appropriate host membranes. However, the(More)
The investigation of molecular mechanisms is a fascinating area of current biological research that unites efforts from scientists with very diverse expertise. This review provides a perspective on the characterization of protein interactions as a central aspect of this research. We discuss case studies on the neurotransmitter release machinery that(More)
Blue light regulates many physiological processes in fungi, but their photoreceptors are not known. In Neurospora crassa, all light responses depend on the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain-containing transcription factor white collar-1 (wc-1). By removing the WC-1 light, oxygen, or voltage domain, a specialized PAS domain that binds flavin mononucleotide in plant(More)
Gene expression studies employing high throughput real time PCR methods require finding uniform conditions for optimal amplification of multiple targets, often a daunting task. We developed a primer database, qPrimerDepot, which provides optimized primers for all human and mouse RefSeq genes. These primers are designed to amplify desired templates under(More)
In the frq-wc-based circadian feedback loops of Neurospora, two PAS domain-containing transcription factors, WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1) and WC-2, form heterodimeric complexes that activate the transcription of frequency (frq). FRQ serves two roles in these feedback loops: repressing its own transcription by interacting with the WC complex and positively(More)
Transcription is a multi-stage process that coordinates several steps within the transcription cycle including chromatin reorganization, RNA polymerase II recruitment, initiation, promoter clearance and elongation. Recent advances have identified the super elongation complex, containing the eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukaemia (ELL) protein, as a key(More)