Kevin Galles

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Increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a hallmark of gliosis, the astrocytic hypertrophy that occurs during a wide variety of diseases of the central nervous system. To determine whether this increase in GFAP expression per se alters astrocyte function, we generated transgenic mice that carry copies of the human GFAP gene driven(More)
Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1) is a 120-kD surface protein on B. dermatitidis yeast. We show here that BAD-1 contains 41 tandem repeats and that deleting even half of them impairs fungal pathogenicity. According to NMR, the repeats form tightly folded 17-amino acid loops constrained by a disulfide bond linking conserved cysteines. Each loop contains a highly(More)
Worldwide rates of systemic fungal infections, including three of the major pathogens responsible for such infections in North America (Coccidioides posadasii, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Blastomyces dermatitidis), have soared recently, spurring interest in developing vaccines. The development of Th1 cells is believed to be crucial for protective immunity(More)
Vaccine immunity to the endemic mycoses of North America requires Th17 cells, but the pattern recognition receptors and signaling pathways that drive these protective responses have not been defined. We show that C-type lectin receptors exert divergent contributions to the development of antifungal Th17 cells and vaccine resistance against Blastomyces(More)
Vaccinologists strive to harness immunity at mucosal sites of pathogen entry. We studied respiratory delivery of an attenuated vaccine against Blastomyces dermatitidis. We created a T cell receptor transgenic mouse responsive to vaccine yeast and found that mucosal vaccination led to poor T cell activation in the draining nodes and differentiation in the(More)
Dimorphic fungi collectively account for 5-10 million new infections annually worldwide. Ongoing efforts seek to clarify mechanisms of cellular resistance to these agents and develop vaccines. A major limitation in studying the development of protective T cells in this group of organisms is the lack of tools to detect, enumerate, and characterize(More)
In the vasculature, ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) channels regulate vascular tone. Mice with targeted gene disruptions of KATP subunits expressed in vascular smooth muscle develop spontaneous coronary vascular spasm and sudden death. From these models, it was hypothesized that the loss of KATP channel activity in arterial vascular smooth muscle(More)
Vaccine-induced T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are necessary and sufficient to protect against fungal infection. Although live fungal vaccines are efficient in driving protective Th17 responses and immunity, attenuated fungi may not be safe for human use. Heat-inactivated formulations and subunit vaccines are safer but less potent and require adjuvant to increase(More)
Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal(More)
Our understanding of persistence and plasticity of IL-17A+ memory T cells is clouded by conflicting results in models analyzing T helper 17 cells. We studied memory IL-17A+ CD8+ T-cell (Tc17) homeostasis, persistence and plasticity during fungal vaccine immunity. We report that vaccine-induced memory Tc17 cells persist with high fidelity to the type 17(More)