Kevin E. Chapman

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Mediators involved in the generation of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are poorly understood. Here we show that colonic biopsy samples from IBS patients release increased levels of proteolytic activity (arginine cleavage) compared to asymptomatic controls. This was dependent on the activation of NF-kappaB. In addition, increased(More)
Proteases that are released during inflammation and injury cleave protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) on primary afferent neurons to cause neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia. PAR2-induced thermal hyperalgesia depends on sensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), which is gated by capsaicin, protons and noxious heat.(More)
1. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed at sites of inflammation and is believed to be the major source of inflammation-associated prostaglandin synthesis. Selective inhibition of COX-2 has been suggested to produce anti-inflammatory effects with reduced toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract. We examined the extent to which suppression of COX-2 led to(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR(4)), the most recently discovered member of the PARs family, is activated by thrombin, trypsin and cathepsin G, but can also be selectively activated by small synthetic peptides (PAR(4)-activating peptide, PAR(4)-AP). PAR(4) is considered a potent mediator of platelet activation and inflammation. As(More)
Although principally produced by the pancreas to degrade dietary proteins in the intestine, trypsins are also expressed in the nervous system and in epithelial tissues, where they have diverse actions that could be mediated by protease-activated receptors (PARs). We examined the biological actions of human trypsin IV (or mesotrypsin) and rat p23,(More)
N-type calcium channels are essential mediators of spinal nociceptive transmission. The core subunit of the N-type channel is encoded by a single gene, and multiple N-type channel isoforms can be generated by alternate splicing. In particular, cell-specific inclusion of an alternatively spliced exon 37a generates a novel form of the N-type channel that is(More)
PURPOSE Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are a malformation of the ventral hypothalamus and tuber cinereum, associated with gelastic seizures and epilepsy. We sought to determine the spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in a large cohort of HH patients. METHODS Data was collected for HH patients undergoing evaluation between 2003 and 2007.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) is an osmosensitive channel that responds to mechanical stimulation. We hypothesized that TRPV4 could be important in visceral nociception and in the development of hypersensitivity. METHODS TRPV4 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivatives of cyclooxygenase inhibitors exhibit enhanced anti-inflammatory activity and greatly reduced gastrointestinal toxicity. We evaluated whether a similar derivatization of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) would improve its anti-inflammatory activity. METHODS Effects of an NO-releasing derivative of(More)
OBJECTIVES We aimed to determine the incidence of electrographic seizures in children in the pediatric intensive care unit who underwent EEG monitoring, risk factors for electrographic seizures, and whether electrographic seizures were associated with increased odds of mortality. METHODS Eleven sites in North America retrospectively reviewed a total of(More)