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Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (K(i), 2 to 10 microM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis,(More)
Consumption of Se accumulator plants by livestock can result in Se intoxication. Recent research indicates that the Se forms most common in Se accumulator plants are selenate and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). In this study the absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics of Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with a single oral dose of (1,(More)
Coniine, one of the major toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum), occurs in two optically active forms. A comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers has not been previously reported. In this study, we separated the enantiomers of coniine and determined the biological activity of each enantiomer in vitro(More)
Iron is an essential metal for most biological organisms. However, if not tightly controlled, iron can mediate the deleterious oxidation of biomolecules. This review focuses on the current understanding of the role of iron in the deleterious oxidation of various biomolecules, including DNA, protein, lipid, and small molecules, e.g., ascorbate and biogenic(More)
Drug-induced liver disease (DILD) causes significant morbidity and mortality and impairs new drug development. Currently, no known criteria can predict whether a drug will cause DILD or what risk factors make an individual susceptible. Although it has been shown in mouse studies that the disruption of key regulatory factors, such as cyclooxygenase-2(More)
We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5(More)
Cyclopamine, a steroidal alkaloid, from the plant Veratrum californicum is teratogenic, causing a range of different birth defects. The critical window for cyclopamine-induced synophthalmia formation has been reported to be gestational day (GD) 14. The objectives of this study were to better describe cyclopamine-induced craniofacial deformities, to better(More)
The pH of the solution along with chelation and consequently coordination of iron regulate its reactivity. In this study we confirmed that, in general, the rate of Fe(II) autoxidation increases as the pH of the solution is increased, but chelators that provide oxygen ligands for the iron can override the affect of pH. Additionally, the stoichiometry of the(More)
Drug-induced hepatitis remains a challenging problem for drug development and safety because of the lack of animal models. In the current work, we discovered a unique interaction that makes mice deficient in both IL-10 and IL-4 (IL-10/4-/-) highly sensitive to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen (APAP). Male C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) and mice deficient in(More)
Locoweeds are defined as Astragalus and Oxytropis species that cause intoxication due to the alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea were influenced by location, plant part, and the developmental stage of the plant. Concentrations followed similar trends at each location, generally increasing over the growing season in(More)