Kevin D. Welch

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The pH of the solution along with chelation and consequently coordination of iron regulate its reactivity. In this study we confirmed that, in general, the rate of Fe(II) autoxidation increases as the pH of the solution is increased, but chelators that provide oxygen ligands for the iron can override the affect of pH. Additionally, the stoichiometry of the(More)
Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (K(i), 2 to 10 microM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis,(More)
Iron is an essential metal for most biological organisms. However, if not tightly controlled, iron can mediate the deleterious oxidation of biomolecules. This review focuses on the current understanding of the role of iron in the deleterious oxidation of various biomolecules, including DNA, protein, lipid, and small molecules, e.g., ascorbate and biogenic(More)
Drug-induced liver disease (DILD) causes significant morbidity and mortality and impairs new drug development. Currently, no known criteria can predict whether a drug will cause DILD or what risk factors make an individual susceptible. Although it has been shown in mouse studies that the disruption of key regulatory factors, such as cyclooxygenase-2(More)
Drug-induced liver disease (DILD) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality and impair new drug development. Mounting evidence suggests that DILD is a complex, multifactorial disease in which no one factor is likely to be an absolute indicator of susceptibility. As an approach to better understand the multifactorial basis of DILD, we recently(More)
Inhibition of fetal movement is one mechanism behind the development of multiple congenital contracture-type defects in developing fetuses of humans and animals. We tested the alkaloids anabasine, lobeline, and myosmine for agonist actions, and sensitivity to alpha conotoxins EI and GI blockade at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)(More)
Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be attributable to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR, which results in the complete inhibition of fetal(More)
Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas,(More)
Delphinium spp. contain numerous norditerpenoid alkaloids which are structurally delineated as 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL) and N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids. The toxicity of many tall larkspur species has been primarily attributed to their increased concentration of MSAL-type alkaloids, such as methyllycaconitine(More)
The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to alkaloids from plants, plant products, or plant extracts has the potential to cause developmental defects in humans and animals. These defects may have multiple causes, but those induced by piperidine and quinolizidine alkaloids arise from the inhibition of fetal movement and are generally referred to as(More)