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Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (K(i), 2 to 10 microM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis,(More)
Coniine, one of the major toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum), occurs in two optically active forms. A comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers has not been previously reported. In this study, we separated the enantiomers of coniine and determined the biological activity of each enantiomer in vitro(More)
Iron is an essential metal for most biological organisms. However, if not tightly controlled, iron can mediate the deleterious oxidation of biomolecules. This review focuses on the current understanding of the role of iron in the deleterious oxidation of various biomolecules, including DNA, protein, lipid, and small molecules, e.g., ascorbate and biogenic(More)
Consumption of Se accumulator plants by livestock can result in Se intoxication. Recent research indicates that the Se forms most common in Se accumulator plants are selenate and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). In this study the absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics of Se in serum and whole blood of lambs dosed with a single oral dose of (1,(More)
The pH of the solution along with chelation and consequently coordination of iron regulate its reactivity. In this study we confirmed that, in general, the rate of Fe(II) autoxidation increases as the pH of the solution is increased, but chelators that provide oxygen ligands for the iron can override the affect of pH. Additionally, the stoichiometry of the(More)
Cyclopamine, a steroidal alkaloid, from the plant Veratrum californicum is teratogenic, causing a range of different birth defects. The critical window for cyclopamine-induced synophthalmia formation has been reported to be gestational day (GD) 14. The objectives of this study were to better describe cyclopamine-induced craniofacial deformities, to better(More)
Locoweeds are defined as Astragalus and Oxytropis species that cause intoxication due to the alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea were influenced by location, plant part, and the developmental stage of the plant. Concentrations followed similar trends at each location, generally increasing over the growing season in(More)
OBJECTIVE-To determine whether larkspur-derived N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids alter heart rate and electrically evoked electromyographic (eEMG) response of the external anal sphincter (EAS) in cattle and whether these effects can be reversed by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. ANIMALS-12 beef heifers and 4 cows.(More)
Larkspur plants contain numerous norditerpenoid alkaloids, which include the 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL)-type alkaloids and the N-(methylsuccinimido)anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids. The MSAL-type alkaloids are generally much more toxic (typically >20 times). Toxicity of many tall larkspurs, such as Delphinium barbeyi, has been attributed(More)
Death camas (Zigadenus spp.) is a common poisonous plant on foothill rangelands in western North America. The steroidal alkaloid zygacine is believed to be the primary toxic component in death camas. Poisonings on rangelands generally occur in the spring when death camas is abundant, whereas other more desirable forage species are limited in availability.(More)