Kevin D. Stokes

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The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic(More)
BACKGROUND Chloroplast division in plant cells occurs by binary fission, yielding two daughter plastids of equal size. Previously, we reported that two Arabidopsis homologues of FtsZ, a bacterial protein that forms a cytokinetic ring during cell division, are essential for plastid division in plants, and may be involved in the formation of plastid-dividing(More)
Chloroplast division is driven by a macromolecular complex containing components that are positioned on the cytosolic surface of the outer envelope, the stromal surface of the inner envelope, and in the intermembrane space. The only constituents of the division apparatus identified thus far are the tubulin-like proteins FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, which colocalize to(More)
In higher plants, two nuclear gene families, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, encode homologs of the bacterial protein FtsZ, a key component of the prokaryotic cell division machinery. We previously demonstrated that members of both gene families are essential for plastid division, but are functionally distinct. To further explore differences between FtsZ1 and FtsZ2(More)
Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from feces has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis for many years. However, direct fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is becoming more widely used, demonstrating similar sensitivity and specificity to culture. To ensure efficient and reproducible PCR results(More)
Homologues of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ are found in higher plants where they function as key components of the chloroplast division complex. In contrast to most bacteria that encode a single FtsZ protein, plants encode multiple proteins that group into two families, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2. Using new sequence data from a broad range photosynthetic(More)
FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are phylogenetically distinct families of FtsZ in plants that co-localize to mid-plastid rings and facilitate division of chloroplasts. In plants, altered levels of either FtsZ1 or FtsZ2 cause dose-dependent defects in chloroplast division; thus, studies on the functional relationship between FtsZ genes require careful manipulation of FtsZ(More)
CRINKLY4 (CR4) is a plant serine-threonine receptor kinase. In Zea mays, CR4 functions in the differentiation of the leaf epidermis and the aleurone cell layer and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, the ortholog ACR4 is involved in the development of the integument and seed coat. The Arabidopsis genome also encodes four CR4-related proteins (CRR) whose functions are(More)
CRINKLY4 is a growth factor-like plant receptor kinase designated as CR4 in Zea mays and ACR4 in Arabidopsis. Using the TOXCAT system, a genetic assay that measures helix interactions in a natural membrane environment, we have previously demonstrated that the dimerization potential of the ACR4 transmembrane (TM) domain is significantly weaker than that of(More)