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OBJECTIVES We sought to determine a generalized equation for predicting maximal heart rate (HRmax) in healthy adults. BACKGROUND The age-predicted HRmax equation (i.e., 220 - age) is commonly used as a basis for prescribing exercise programs, as a criterion for achieving maximal exertion and as a clinical guide during diagnostic exercise testing. Despite(More)
BACKGROUND A reduction in compliance of the large-sized cardiothoracic (central) arteries is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease with advancing age. METHODS AND RESULTS We determined the role of habitual exercise on the age-related decrease in central arterial compliance by using both cross-sectional and interventional(More)
Peripheral conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation decreases with ageing in humans. The underlying mechanisms and efficacy of preventive strategies are unknown. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation was determined at baseline and after ascorbic acid (vitamin C) intravenous infusion and chronic supplementation (500 mg day(-1) for 30 days) in three groups(More)
1. In experimental animals chronic elevations in arterial blood flow increase the lumen diameter and reduce the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the arterial segment involved. We determined whether intermittent elevations in active muscle blood flow associated with regular aerobic leg exercise induced such expansive arterial remodelling in the common femoral(More)
1. Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), the arterial baroreflex-mediated change in the R-R interval per unit change in systolic blood pressure, decreases with advancing age in sedentary adult humans. We determined the effects of regular aerobic exercise on the age-related decline in cardiovagal BRS. 2. In the cross-sectional study, 133 healthy men(More)
Cardiovascular-related mortality peaks during cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Acute physiological responses, such as increases in blood pressure, in response to cold exposure may contribute to these associations. To determine whether the blood pressure-raising effect (pressor response) of non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress(More)
We determined the independent and interactive influences of aging and habitual endurance exercise on calf venous compliance in humans. We tested the hypotheses that calf venous compliance is 1) reduced with age in sedentary and endurance-trained men, and 2) elevated in young and older endurance-trained compared with age-matched sedentary men. We studied 8(More)
BACKGROUND In sedentary humans endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired with advancing age contributing to their increased cardiovascular risk, whereas endurance-trained adults demonstrate lower age-related risk. We determined the influence of regular aerobic exercise on the age-related decline in endothelium-dependent vasodilation. METHODS AND(More)
Background- Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) declines with age but is favorably modulated by habitual aerobic exercise. We tested the hypothesis that compliance (transducing capacity) of an elastic artery in which baroreceptors are located is associated with these age-exercise interactions. Methods and Results- Nine young (28+/-1 years old) and 9(More)
Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) declines with advancing age in humans, but the underlying mechanism has not been established. Using two different approaches, we determined the relation between age-associated decline in cardiovagal BRS and the compliance of an artery in which arterial baroreceptors are located. First, we measured carotid artery(More)