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OBJECTIVES We sought to determine a generalized equation for predicting maximal heart rate (HRmax) in healthy adults. BACKGROUND The age-predicted HRmax equation (i.e., 220 - age) is commonly used as a basis for prescribing exercise programs, as a criterion for achieving maximal exertion and as a clinical guide during diagnostic exercise testing. Despite(More)
BACKGROUND A reduction in compliance of the large-sized cardiothoracic (central) arteries is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease with advancing age. METHODS AND RESULTS We determined the role of habitual exercise on the age-related decrease in central arterial compliance by using both cross-sectional and interventional(More)
BACKGROUND In sedentary humans endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired with advancing age contributing to their increased cardiovascular risk, whereas endurance-trained adults demonstrate lower age-related risk. We determined the influence of regular aerobic exercise on the age-related decline in endothelium-dependent vasodilation. METHODS AND(More)
Increased central arterial stiffness and enhanced arterial wave reflections may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease development with advancing age. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3) ingestion may reduce cardiovascular risk via favorable effects exerted on arterial structure and function. We determined the effects of n-3(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the semicircular canals and otolith organs on respiration in humans. On the basis of animal studies, we hypothesized that vestibular activation would elicit a vestibulorespiratory reflex. To test this hypothesis, respiratory measures, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during(More)
Arterial blood pressure (BP) is regulated via the interaction of various local, humoral, and neural factors. In humans, the major neural pathway for acute BP regulation involves the baroreflexes. In response to baroreceptor activation/deactivation, as occurs during transient changes in BP, key determinants of BP, such as cardiac period/heart rate (via the(More)
Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) declines with advancing age in healthy men. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes mechanistically to this age-associated reduction. Eight young (23 +/- 1 yrs, means +/- SE) and seven older (63 +/- 3) healthy men were studied. Cardiovagal BRS was assessed using the modified Oxford technique (bolus(More)
BACKGROUND The vestibular system contributes to sympathetic activation by engagement of the otolith organs. However, there is a significant loss of vestibular function with aging. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if young and older individuals differ in their cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to otolithic stimulation (ie,(More)
To test the hypothesis that cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness to exogenous norepinephrine is reduced in older compared with young subjects, dose-response relations between norepinephrine and skin blood flow were established. Seven doses of norepinephrine (1.10(-8) to 10(-2) log M) were perfused (2 microl/min) intradermally (4 min/dose) using(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine sympathetic vascular transduction in young normotensive black and white adults. We hypothesized that blacks would demonstrate augmented transduction of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) into vascular resistance. To test this hypothesis, MSNA, forearm blood flow, heart rate, and arterial blood pressure(More)