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Radiotherapy is one of the most successful cancer therapies. Here the effect of irradiation on antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules was studied. Cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules was increased for many days in a radiation dose-dependent manner as a consequence of three responses. Initially, enhanced degradation of existing proteins(More)
A technique for transperineal high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy and needle biopsy in a standard 1.5 T MRI scanner is demonstrated. In each of eight procedures (in four patients with intermediate to high risk localized prostate cancer), four MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsies were obtained followed by placement of 14-15 hollow transperineal(More)
Local radiation is an established therapy for human tumors. Radiation also has been shown to alter the phenotype of target tissue, including gene products that may make tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. We demonstrate a biological synergy between local radiation of tumor and active vaccine therapy. The model used consisted of(More)
PURPOSE Many patients with clinically localized prostate cancer develop biochemical failure despite excellent local therapy perhaps due to occult metastatic disease. One potential solution is the utilization of a well-tolerated systemic therapy (e.g., vaccine) in concert with local therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We present a randomized phase II clinical(More)
The observation that radiation treatment to a local area of the body results in an antitumor effect for tumors distant to the radiation site has been termed the "abscopal effect." To understand the mechanism of this unusual phenomenon, we examined whether the effect was mediated through p53, a protein complex up-regulated in irradiated cells.(More)
Rad51 is an essential component of the homologous DNA repair pathway and has been implicated as a determinant of cellular radiosensitivity. Gleevec is a relatively specific inhibitor of c-Abl, a tyrosine kinase that can play a role in the regulation Rad51. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Gleevec on Rad51 levels and the radiosensitivity(More)
PURPOSE We investigated the accuracy and feasibility of a system that provides transrectal needle access to the prostate concurrent with 1.5 Tesla MRI which previously has not been possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 5 patients with previously diagnosed prostate cancer, MRI guided intraprostatic placement of gold fiducial markers (4 procedures) and/or(More)
PURPOSE As chemotherapy and molecular therapy improve the systemic survival of breast cancer patients, the incidence of brain metastases increases. Few therapeutic strategies exist for the treatment of brain metastases because the blood-brain barrier severely limits drug access. We report the pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and mechanism of action studies for(More)
PURPOSE Current strategies for tumor cell radiosensitization focus on a target-based approach. However, the radioresponse of a tumor cell is influenced by a wide variety of signaling molecules existing in a number of different survival pathways. Therefore, in an attempt to increase the probability and/or degree of radiosensitization, we have begun to(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumour. Patients afflicted with this disease unfortunately have a very poor prognosis, and fewer than 5% of patients survive for 5 years from the time of diagnosis. Therefore, improved therapies to treat this disease are sorely needed. One such class of drugs that have generated(More)