Kevin C. Knower

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Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome-linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct(More)
The enzyme aromatase converts androgens to estrogens, which have recently been postulated to be essential for testicular development and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate aromatase activity in the testis may therefore have implications for treatment of male infertility. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, which uses multiple(More)
BACKGROUND Liver Receptor Homolog 1 (LRH-1, NR5A2) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is over-expressed in cancers in tissues such as the breast, colon and pancreas. LRH-1 plays important roles in embryonic development, steroidogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis. In tumor cells, LRH-1 induces proliferation and cell cycle progression. High LRH-1 expression(More)
The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E2), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER- cells. However, the(More)
The decision of the bi-potential gonad to develop into either a testis or ovary is determined by the presence or absence of the Sex-determining Region gene on the Y chromosome (SRY). Since its discovery, almost 13 years ago, the molecular role that SRY plays in initiating the male sexual development cascade has proven difficult to ascertain. While(More)
Cytochrome aromatase p450, encoded by the gene CYP19, catalyzes the synthesis of estrogens from androgens. In post-menopausal women, adipose becomes the major site for estrogen production, where basal CYP19 transcription is driven by distal promoter I.4. In breast adipose fibroblasts (BAFs), CYP19 expression is elevated in the presence of tumour-derived(More)
In most mammals, the Y chromosomal Sry gene initiates testis formation within the bipotential gonad, resulting in male development. SRY is a transcription factor and together with SF1 it directly up-regulates the expression of the pivotal sex-determining gene Sox9 via a 1.3-kb cis-regulatory element (TESCO) which contains an evolutionarily conserved region(More)
The study of the mammalian sex-determining pathway has been hampered by the lack of cell culture systems to investigate the underlying molecular relationships between sex-determining genes. Recent approaches using high-throughput genome-wide studies have revealed a number of sexually dimorphic genes expressed in the developing mouse gonad. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary often express aromatase and synthesize estrogen, which in turn may influence their progression. Recently a specific point mutation (C134W) in the FOXL2 protein was identified in >94% of adult-type GCT and it is likely to contribute to their development. A number of genes are known to be regulated by FOXL2,(More)
Aromatase is the critical enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens. It is frequently highly expressed in the tumour bearing breast of women diagnosed with estrogen receptor positive tumours, resulting in dramatically increased local estrogen production to drive tumour progression. Expression of aromatase is regulated primarily at the transcriptional(More)