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K(ATP) channels are metabolic sensors and targets of potassium channel openers (KCO; e.g., diazoxide and pinacidil). They comprise four sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) and four potassium channel subunits (Kir6) and are critical in regulating insulin secretion. Different SUR subtypes (SUR1, SUR2A, SUR2B) largely determine the metabolic sensitivities and the(More)
—Monitoring of salmonid populations often involves annual redd counts, but the validity of this method has seldom been evaluated. We conducted redd counts of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in two streams in northern Idaho to address four issues: (1) relationships between adult escapements and redd counts; (2) interobserver variability in redd counts; (3)(More)
The national truth campaign has exposed U.S. youth to antismoking messages since 2000. Tobacco industry-sponsored campaigns, such as "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS), have also aired nationally. We examine the effects of recall of the truth and TDS campaigns on changes in tobacco-related beliefs, intentions, and smoking initiation in a longitudinal survey of U.S.(More)
BACKGROUND Every year, smoking kills more than 5 million people globally, including 440,000 people in the USA, where the long-term decline in smoking prevalence has slowed. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) delivered a national, 3-month antismoking campaign called Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) that started in March, 2012, in which(More)
Developing Asia experienced a sharp surge in foreign currency reserves prior to the 2008-9 crisis. The global crisis has been associated with an unprecedented rise of swap agreements between central banks of larger economies and their counterparts in smaller economies. We explore whether such swap lines can reduce the need for reserve accumulation. The(More)
Homeowners at risk of default face a debt overhang that reduces their incentive to invest in their property: in expectation, some value created by equity investments will go to the lender. Using rich microdata on household expenditures, I show that debt overhang plays an important role in household financial decisions, as negative equity homeowners cut back(More)
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals. The author and publisher have taken care in the preparation of(More)
INTRODUCTION The New York Tobacco Control Program (NY TCP) is one of the largest state tobacco control programs in the United States. Little research has been published on the effectiveness of its antismoking media campaign. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposure to NY TCP's statewide antismoking media campaign corresponded to smoking(More)
BACKGROUND While antismoking media campaigns have demonstrated effectiveness, less is known about the country-level effects of increased media dosing. The 2012 US Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign generated approximately 1.6 million quit attempts overall; however, the specific dose-response from the campaign was only assessed by self-report. (More)
BACKGROUND Measuring the impact of online health campaigns is challenging. Ad click-through rates are traditionally used to measure campaign reach, but few Internet users ever click on ads. Alternatively, self-reported exposure to digital ads would be prone to recall bias. Furthermore, there may be latency effects whereby people do not click on ads when(More)