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The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock(More)
The effects of chronic estrogen treatment on radial arm maze performance and on levels of central monoaminergic and amino acid neurotransmitters were examined in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. In an eight arms baited paradigm, choice accuracy was enhanced following 12 days but not 3 days of treatment. In addition, performance during acquisition of the eight(More)
This experiment sought to identify the extent housing conditions can differentially enhance or dampen the effects chronic restraint stress has on exploration and object memory in male and female rats. Subjects were either pair- or singly housed during stress (21 days of 6-h restraint) and maintained under those conditions during poststress behavior testing(More)
Rats that exhibit a behaviorally inhibited temperament acquire active-avoidance behaviors quicker, and extinguish them slower, than normal outbred rats. Here we explored the contribution of stimuli that signal periods of non-threat (i.e. safety signals) in the process of acquiring active-avoidance behavior. Utilizing a discrete lever-press escape-avoidance(More)
Traumatic injury to the central nervous system results in the disruption of the blood brain/spinal barrier, followed by the invasion of cells and other components of the immune system that can aggravate injury and affect subsequent repair and regeneration. Although studies of chronic neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord of animals are clinically(More)
Recent research has indicated that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), can affect learning and memory. We injected male Sprague-Dawley rats with IL-1beta (1.0, 3.0, or 6.0 microg/kg, i.p.) or saline vehicle, 24h before a single 4-h session of leverpress escape/avoidance conditioning. No effect of IL-1beta at any dose(More)
The most recent Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreak was the largest and most widespread in recorded history, emphasizing the need for an effective vaccine. Here, we analyzed human cellular immune responses induced by a single dose of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine candidate, which showed significant protective efficacy in endemic populations in Guinea. This is the(More)
An object recognition task was used to determine if chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days) impairs non-spatial memory, since chronic restraint is known to impair spatial memory. In addition, food deprivation was tested as a possible modulating factor of any stress effect in this non-reward-dependent task. Following 3 weeks of daily restraint,(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that the time course of advantageous versus deleterious effects of stress on physiologic function is also apparent in some brain functions, including learning and memory. This article reviews the effects of chronic stress on behavioral performance and, more importantly, shows that sex of the subject, as well as duration and(More)
Hemizygous cryptic deletions of the q11 band of human chromosome 22 have been associated with a number of psychiatric and behavioural phenotypes, including schizophrenia. Here we report the isolation and characterization of PRODH, a human homologue of Drosophila melanogaster sluggish-A (slgA), which encodes proline dehydrogenase responsible for the(More)