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Traumatic injury to the central nervous system results in the disruption of the blood brain/spinal barrier, followed by the invasion of cells and other components of the immune system that can aggravate injury and affect subsequent repair and regeneration. Although studies of chronic neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord of animals are clinically(More)
The effects of chronic estrogen treatment on radial arm maze performance and on levels of central monoaminergic and amino acid neurotransmitters were examined in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. In an eight arms baited paradigm, choice accuracy was enhanced following 12 days but not 3 days of treatment. In addition, performance during acquisition of the eight(More)
The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock(More)
Hemizygous cryptic deletions of the q11 band of human chromosome 22 have been associated with a number of psychiatric and behavioural phenotypes, including schizophrenia. Here we report the isolation and characterization of PRODH, a human homologue of Drosophila melanogaster sluggish-A (slgA), which encodes proline dehydrogenase responsible for the(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that the time course of advantageous versus deleterious effects of stress on physiologic function is also apparent in some brain functions, including learning and memory. This article reviews the effects of chronic stress on behavioral performance and, more importantly, shows that sex of the subject, as well as duration and(More)
This experiment sought to identify the extent housing conditions can differentially enhance or dampen the effects chronic restraint stress has on exploration and object memory in male and female rats. Subjects were either pair- or singly housed during stress (21 days of 6-h restraint) and maintained under those conditions during poststress behavior testing(More)
Cognitive responses to stress follow the temporally dependent pattern originally established by Selye (1) wherein short-term stressors elicit adaptive responses whereas continued stress (chronic) results in maladaptive changes--deleterious effects on physiological systems and impaired cognition. However, this pattern for cognitive effects appears to apply(More)
In this study we assessed habituation and sensitization of the acoustic startle response (ASR) to discern whether intense, inescapable stress affects nonassociative learning differently in male and female rats. Rats were inescapably stressed 2 hours per day over 3 consecutive days. ASR magnitudes were measured at several times post-stress (1, 4, 8, and 15(More)
Although anecdotal reports suggest that associative learning processes are affected by menstrual phase, empirical evidence has been equivocal. Moreover, there is a dearth of research concerning fluctuations of artificial or exogenous female hormones on learning and memory. Therefore, in this preliminary study we assessed learning in women who take oral(More)
The underlying causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are unknown, but clinical and experimental studies indicate immune mechanisms, in general, and cytokine dysregulation, in particular, as contributing factors in their etiology. We developed a prenatal mouse model of autism to demonstrate that circulating levels of defined cytokines in pregnant dams(More)